European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 44, Issue 7, pp 406–413 | Cite as

Probiotic bacteria stimulate virus–specific neutralizing antibodies following a booster polio vaccination

  • M. de VreseEmail author
  • P. Rautenberg
  • C. Laue
  • M. Koopmans
  • T. Herremans
  • J. Schrezenmeir



Orally ingested probiotic bacteria may modulate the immune response and increase antibody titers against enteric infections by bacteria or viruses. Even though positive effects of probiotics on respiratory tract infections have been reported, overall only few studies have examined effects on virus infections concerning organs other than the gastrointestinal tract.

Aim of the study

It was the aim of the study to investigate whether and how probiotics affect the immune response to a standardized enterovirus challenge (polio) and infections not limited to the gastrointestinal tract in healthy adults.


In a randomized, controlled and double–blind study 64 volunteers consumed for 5 weeks chemically acidified clotted milk without bacteria or with 1010/serving Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL431 added. In the second week subjects were vaccinated orally against polio 1, 2 and 3. Polio virus neutralizing serum activity, the primary parameter, was determined by the standard neutralization test (WHO) before and three times after vaccination. Polio–specific IgA, IgG and IgM were detected by ELISAs.


Probiotics increased poliovirus neutralizing antibody titers (NT) and affected the formation of poliovirus–specific IgA and IgG in serum. The maximum increase after immunization was about 2, 2.2, or 4–fold higher, respectively, for NT, IgG or, IgA, in volunteers consuming probiotics instead of placebo. No consistent difference was noted between bacterial strains.


Probiotics induce an immunologic response that may provide enhanced systemic protection of cells from virus infections by increasing production of virus neutralizing antibodies.

Key words

immune response neutralizing antibodies poliovirus probiotics vaccination 


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Copyright information

© Steinkopff-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. de Vrese
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Rautenberg
    • 2
  • C. Laue
    • 1
  • M. Koopmans
    • 3
  • T. Herremans
    • 3
  • J. Schrezenmeir
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and FoodInstitute of Physiology and Biochemistry of NutritionKielGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Medical Microbiology and VirologyChristian-Albrechts-UniversityKielGermany
  3. 3.National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)BilthovenThe Netherlands

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