The effect of milk fermented by yogurt cultures plus Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 on the immune response of subjects under academic examination stress
A suppressed immune response has been documented in students under examination stress.
The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of milk fermented with yogurt cultures plus Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 (Actimel®) on the immune system of subjects under academic examination stress.
University students were allocated to one of two groups, receiving during 6 weeks (3 weeks prior to, as well as the 3-week duration of the examination period) either: a) a glass of semi-skimmed milk each day (control group, n=63) or b) two 100mL portions per day of fermented milk (treatment group, n=73). Anxiety and immunological measurements were monitored at baseline (Phase 0) and study end (Phase 1).
The results were expressed as the differences between the data obtained from Phase 0 and Phase 1. This was calculated by subtracting Phase 1 results from the Phase 0 and it is denominated “Treatment effect”. Mean (± SE) anxiety increased significantly (P<0.05) over the 6-week study in all students, from 40.74±2.50 to 61.19±2.64 (in percentiles). There was no significant treatment effect since this increase was similar in the control and the treatment groups (21.65±5.09 vs 19.14±3.67, respectively). However, there was a significant treatment effect (P<0.05) on the mean change in absolute number of lymphocytes during the 6-week study, which decreased in the control group (–0.04±0.12 cells x 103/mm3) and increased in the treatment group (0.37±0.11 cells x 103/mm3). There was also a significant treatment effect (P<0.05) on the change in absolute numbers of CD56 cells during the 6-week study. Mean absolute CD56 cells significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the control group (–51.97±21.33 cells/mm3),while remaining similar in the treatment group (17.29±17.27 cells/mm3). During the study, mean serum cortisol increased 4.30±0.98 µg/dL in the control group, and 1.75±1.05 µg/dL in the treatment group and no significant differences were found between both values (P=0.062).
Milk fermented with yogurt cultures plus Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 was able to modulate the number of lymphocytes and CD56 cells in subjects under academic examination stress.
Key wordsfermented milk Lactobacillus casei DN114001 examination stress immunomodulation cortisol
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 12.Paubert-Braquet M (1995) Enhancement of host resistance against Salmonella typhimurium in mice fed a diet supplemented with yogurt or milk fermented with various Lactobacillus casei strains. Int J Immunotherapy 11(4):153–161Google Scholar
- 17.Pujol P, Huguet J, Drobnic F, Banquels M, Ruiz O, Galilea P, Sagarra N, Aguilera S, Burnat A, Mateos JA, Postaire E (2000) The effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei on the immune response to exercise. Sports Med Training Rehab 00:1–15Google Scholar
- 25.Nagao F, Nakayama M, Muto T, Okumura K (2000) Effects of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the immune system in healthy volunteers. Biosci Biotech Biochem 64:2706–2708Google Scholar
- 32.Pestka JJ, Ha CL, Warner RW, Lee JH, Ustunol Z (2001) Effects of ingestion of yogurts containing Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus acidophilus on spleen and peyers patch lymphocyte populations in the mouse. J Food Protect 64:392–395Google Scholar
- 34.Kano H, Kaneko T, Kaminogawa S (2002) Oral intake of Lactobacillus delbruckii subsp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 prevents collagen induced arthritis in mice. J Food Protect 65:153–160Google Scholar
- 37.Christensen NJ, Jensen EW (1994) Effect of psychosocial stress and age on plasma norepinephrine levels: a review. Psychosomatic Med 56:77–83Google Scholar
- 42.Lu ZW, Hayley S, Ravindran AV, Merali Z, Anisman H (1999) Influence of psychosocial, psychogenic and neurogenic stressors on several aspects of immune functioning in mice. Stress 3:55–70Google Scholar
- 44.Gitlin N, Ginn P, Kobayashi K, Arakawa A (1988) The relationship between plasma cortisol and gastric mucosa prostaglandin levels in rats with stress ulcers. Alim Pharmacol Ther 2:213–22Google Scholar
- 45.Bailey MT,Coe CL (1999) Maternal separation disrupts the integrity of the intestinal microflora in infant rhesus monkeys. Developtl Psychobiol 35:146–155Google Scholar
- 46.Zomborszky Z, Feher T, Horn E, Poteczin E, Tuboly S, Kovacs-Zomborszky M (1996) Comparison of some blood parameters of captured and farmed red deer (Cervus Elaphus) hinds. Acta Veterin Hungarica 44:433–441Google Scholar