European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 43, Issue 6, pp 360–366 | Cite as

Effect of domestic cooking on human bioavailability of naringenin, chlorogenic acid, lycopene and β-carotene in cherry tomatoes

  • R. BugianesiEmail author
  • M. Salucci
  • C. Leonardi
  • R. Ferracane
  • G. Catasta
  • E. Azzini
  • G. Maiani



Epidemiological data showed that tomato and tomato product (sauce, paste) consumption is associated with a protective effect against the development of some chronic-degenerative diseases. Tomato antioxidant bioactive molecules such as carotenoids and polyphenols could be responsible, at least in part, for the healthy effect observed. The bioavailability of these compounds is an essential requirement to sustain their in vivo role. While it is well known that many factors can influence the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from the food matrix, there is little information about the factors affecting phenolic compounds’ bioaccessibility.

Aim of the study

This investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of domestic cooking on the bioavailability in humans of antioxidant molecules after the administration of a test meal containing cherry tomatoes.


A cross-over design was conducted. Subjects (3 females and 2 males) consumed experimental meals containing fresh and cooked cherry tomatoes. Blood collection was performed at different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h).


Carotenoid and phenol plasma concentrations were measured. Plasma levels of lycopene and β-carotene were not significantly different with respect to the baseline after ingestion of both the test meals, while plasma concentrations of naringenin and chlorogenic acid increased significantly with respect to the baseline (P<0.05) after administration of cooked cherry tomatoes, but not after administration of fresh cherry tomatoes.


The present study indicated that domestically cooked tomatoes significantly increase naringenin and chlorogenic acid plasma levels. Considering that both naringenin and chlorogenic acid are widely studied for their potential healthy properties, evidence of their bioavailability and of the factors influencing their bioaccessibility is an important tool to sustain the possibility that these polyphenols play a biological role in human physiology.

Key words

tomato domestic cooking carotenoids naringenin chlorogenic acid bioavailability 


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Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Bugianesi
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • M. Salucci
    • 1
  • C. Leonardi
    • 2
  • R. Ferracane
    • 3
  • G. Catasta
    • 1
  • E. Azzini
    • 1
  • G. Maiani
    • 1
  1. 1.Antioxidant Research Laboratory, Unit of Human NutritionI. N. R. A. N.RomeItaly
  2. 2.Dept. of Agriculture Chemistry & BiologyUniversity of Reggio Calabria “Mediterranea”Reggio CalabriaItaly
  3. 3.Dept. of Food ScienceUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  4. 4.I. N. R. A. N., National Institute for Food and Nutrition ResearchRomeItaly

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