PASSCLAIM – Physical performance and fitness
Objective: The aim of the EC Concerted Action PASSCLAIM was to develop a set of methods and procedures for assessing the scientific support for function-enhancing and health-related claims for foods and food components. This paper presents a critical review of the existing methods to evaluate the different aspects of physical performance and fitness needed to support claims on foods and food ingredients intended to enhance specific physiological functions. Design and Results: Based on an inventory of labelling claims on available sport nutrition products, seven physiological functions in the field of physical performance and fitness were identified: 1) strength and power, 2) endurance, energy supply and recovery, 3) hydration/re-hydration, 4) flexibility, 5) tissue growth, 6) free radical scavenger capacity and 7) immune function. For each function the existing methodology was reviewed critically and judged on suitability to generate scientific support for physiological function claims on foods. Conclusions: A database of methods including advantages and disadvantages of use has been generated for considering the scientific support of claims on foods and food ingredients relating to physical performance and fitness. It will contribute to the formulations of guidelines for assessing the scientific support of enhanced function or reduced disease risk claims on foods.