β2-Adrenergic receptor mutation and abdominal obesity risk: Effect modification by gender and HDL-cholesterol
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Objective and design A case-control study was conducted to examine the association between the 27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) and the risk of abdominal obesity (defined by a waist/hip ratio: WHR higher than 0.85). Methods The case series encompassed 112 obese subjects with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2 and WHR > 0.85 and no other major disease except for type 2 diabetes, while the controls were 127 healthy subjects, BMI < 25 kg/m2 and WHR < 0.85. Results The association between the risk of abdominal obesity and the 27Glu polymorphism was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. A higher crude odds ratio (OR) of 4.08 (95 % confidence interval: 0.98–16.3) for the 27Glu allele was found among men, while no increased risk was apparent among female participants. Moreover, when the model was adjusted for age, male subjects carriers of the 27Glu allele had a significant ten-fold higher risk of abdominal obesity (OR = 10.31; 95 % CI: 1.4–76.8) and the product-term for the interaction (effect modification) between gender and the ADRB2 mutation was near to the limits of statistical significance (Likelihood ratio test p = 0.056). Interestingly, we also found an effect modification with higher OR among individuals with low HDL-cholesterol (< 1.5 mmol/l) after adjustment for age and gender (OR = 2.87 95 % CI 1.09–7.50) and the product-term for interaction between the 27Glu allele and HDL-cholesterol was statistically significant (Likelihood ratio test p = 0.003). Conclusions. Our results showed that the 27Glu allele of the ADRB2 gene appears to be a risk factor for abdominal obesity among male subjects, specially among those with lower HDL-cholesterol levels.
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