Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie

, Volume 66, Issue 4, pp 297–303 | Cite as

Zytokine

Leitthema

Zusammenfassung

Zytokine sind körpereigene Substanzen, die von verschiedenen Zellen des Immunsystems im Rahmen der angeborenen und spezifischen Immunantwort freigesetzt werden. Sie sind an der Steuerung von Zellfunktionen, insbesondere von Entzündungsreaktionen, beteiligt. Während Zytokine unter physiologischen Bedingungen in der Regel nur temporär auf einen entsprechenden Stimulus hin gebildet und anschließend sehr rasch wieder abgebaut oder eliminiert werden, finden sich bei chronisch-entzündlichen Systemerkrankungen wie der rheumatoiden Arthritis persistierend erhöhte Spiegel von Zytokinen in den betroffenen Geweben. Ferner scheint es unabhängig vom jeweils vorliegenden Krankheitsbild bei Autoimmunerkrankungen eine gemeinsame, zytokinabhängige Endstrecke zu geben, in der einzelne Zytokine bestimmte Schrittmacherfunktionen in der Pathogenese innehaben.

Durch die gezielte Blockade von Zytokinen oder deren Funktion ist es gelungen, spezifisch in den Kreislauf autoimmuner Entzündungsreaktionen einzugreifen.

Die intensive Forschung über die letzten 2 Jahrzehnte identifizierte in diesem Zusammenhang zahlreiche therapeutische Zielstrukturen, von denen 2 Schlüsselzytokine (TNF-α und IL-1) in der Pharmakotherapie bereits erfolgreich genutzt werden. Mit der Modulation von IL-6 wird in absehbarer Zukunft ein weiteres, hochwirksames Therapieprinzip für Patienten mit rheumatoider Arthritis zur Verfügung stehen.

Schlüsselwörter

Zytokine TNF-α IL-1 IL-6 Rheumatoide Arthritis 

Cytokines

Abstract

Cytokine driven inflammation is a common feature in autoimmune diseases. Cytokines are needed under physiological conditions within the innate and adaptive immune systems to control infectious diseases and neoplastic disorders by regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis. Cytokines can also be found in persistently increased concentrations in inflamed tissues within autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the modulation of cytokines seems to be a worthwhile therapeutic approach. With TNFα and Il-1, two key cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis have been identified. Their inhibition leads to a convincing clinical benefit. In the near future, inhibition of additional cytokines, such as Il-6 or Il-15, will likely open new beneficial strategies.

Keywords

Cytokine TNFα Il-1 Il-6 Rheumatoid arthritis 

Notes

Interessenkonflikt

Der korrespondierende Autor gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

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Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Schwerpunkt Rheumatologie/Klinische ImmunologieMedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik II der Universität WürzburgWürzburgDeutschland

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