Transcatheter aortic valve replacement for pure aortic valve regurgitation: “on-label” versus “off-label” use of TAVR devices

  • Bernhard Wernly
  • Sarah Eder
  • Eliano P. Navarese
  • Daniel Kretzschmar
  • Marcus Franz
  • Brunilda Alushi
  • Frederik Beckhoff
  • Christian Jung
  • Michael Lichtenauer
  • Christian Datz
  • Paul Christian Schulze
  • Ulf Landmesser
  • Uta C. Hoppe
  • Volkmar Falk
  • Alexander LautenEmail author
Original Paper



Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become the mainstay of treatment for aortic stenosis in patients with high surgical risk. Pure aortic regurgitation (PAR) is considered a relative contraindication for TAVR; however, TAVR is increasingly performed in PAR patients with unfavorable risk profile. Herein, we aim to summarize available data on TAVR for PAR with special emphasis on “on-label” versus “off-label” TAVR devices.

Methods and results

Pubmed was searched for studies of patients undergoing TAVR for PAR. Primary outcome was 30 day-mortality. Pooled estimated event rates were calculated. Twelve studies including a total of 640 patients were identified until December 2017. Among these, 208 (33%) patients were treated with devices with CE-mark approval for PAR (“on-label”; JenaValve and J valve). Overall, the procedural success rate was 89.9% (95% CI 81.1–96.1%; I2 80%). Major bleeding was reported in 6.4% (95% CI 2.9–10.8%; I2 48%). All-cause mortality at 30 days was 10.4% (95% CI 7.1–14.2%; I2 20%). Stroke occurred in 2.2% (95% CI 0.9–3.9%; I2 0%). A permanent pacemaker was required in 10.7% (95% CI 7.3–14.6%; I2 23%). At 30 days after TAVR, ≥ moderate AR post-interventional was observed in 11.5% (95% CI 2.9–23.6%; I2 90%). In the “on-label”-group, success rate was 93.0% (95% CI 85.9–98.1%; I2 52%). 30-day-mortality was 9.1% (95% CI 3.7–16.0%; I2 36%). More than trace AR was present in 2.8% (95% CI 0.1–7.6%; I2 0%). Compared to first-generation devices, second-generation devices were associated with significantly lower 30-day-mortality (r = − 0.10; p = 0.02), and significantly higher procedural success rates (r = 0.28; p < 0.001). Compared to other second-generation devices, the use of J valve or JenaValve was not associated with altered mortality (r = 0.04; p = 0.50), rates of > trace residual AR (r = − 0.05; p = 0.65) but with a significantly higher procedural success (r = 0.15; p = 0.042).


Based on this summary of available observational data TAVR for PAR is feasible and safe in patients deemed inoperable. First-generation TAVR devices are associated with inferior outcome and should be avoided. The “on-label” use of PAR-certified TAVR devices is associated with a significantly higher procedural success rate and might be favorable compared to other second-generation devices.


TAVR TAVI Aortic insufficiency Aortic regurgitation Transcatheter aortic valve replacement Transcatheter aortic valve implantation 




Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

392_2019_1422_MOESM1_ESM.doc (57 kb)
Suppl Fig. 1 PRISMA Flow chart (DOC 57 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernhard Wernly
    • 1
  • Sarah Eder
    • 2
  • Eliano P. Navarese
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Daniel Kretzschmar
    • 6
  • Marcus Franz
    • 6
  • Brunilda Alushi
    • 7
    • 8
  • Frederik Beckhoff
    • 7
    • 8
  • Christian Jung
    • 9
  • Michael Lichtenauer
    • 1
  • Christian Datz
    • 2
  • Paul Christian Schulze
    • 6
  • Ulf Landmesser
    • 7
    • 8
    • 10
  • Uta C. Hoppe
    • 1
  • Volkmar Falk
    • 11
    • 12
    • 13
  • Alexander Lauten
    • 7
    • 8
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Cardiology, Clinic of Internal Medicine IIParacelsus Medical University of SalzburgSalzburgAustria
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital OberndorfTeaching Hospital of Paracelsus Medical University SalzburgOberndorfAustria
  3. 3.Interventional Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine Research, Inova Center for Thrombosis Research and Drug DevelopmentInova Heart and Vascular InstituteFalls ChurchUSA
  4. 4.SIRIO MEDICINE Network, Evidence-Based SectionFalls ChurchUSA
  5. 5.Cardiovascular InstituteLudwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus UniversityBydgoszczPoland
  6. 6.Department of Cardiology, Clinic of Internal Medicine IUniversitaetsherzzentrum Thüringen, Friedrich Schiller University JenaJenaGermany
  7. 7.Department of CardiologyUniversity Heart Center Berlin and Charité University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin-FranklinBerlinGermany
  8. 8.German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Site BerlinBerlinGermany
  9. 9.Division of Cardiology, Pulmonology, and Vascular Medicine, Medical FacultyUniversity DuesseldorfDüsseldorfGermany
  10. 10.Berlin Institute of Health (BIH)BerlinGermany
  11. 11.Department of Cardiovascular SurgeryCharite BerlinBerlinGermany
  12. 12.Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular SurgeryGerman Heart Center BerlinBerlinGermany
  13. 13.Department of Health Sciences and TechnologyETH ZürichZurichSwitzerland

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