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Clinical Research in Cardiology

, Volume 108, Issue 1, pp 101–109 | Cite as

Sex differences in risk of incident venous thromboembolism in heart failure patients

  • Line MelgaardEmail author
  • Peter Brønnum Nielsen
  • Thure Filskov Overvad
  • Flemming Skjøth
  • Gregory Y. H. Lip
  • Torben Bjerregaard Larsen
Original Paper

Abstract

Background

In patients with incident heart failure, the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), defined as pulmonary embolism (PE) and/or deep venous thrombosis (DVT), is sparsely described, especially potential sex differences. We conducted an observational study to evaluate risk of VTE among male and female heart failure patients.

Methods

Population-based cohort study of patients diagnosed with incident heart failure during 2000–2015, identified by record linkage between nationwide registries in Denmark. Using a pseudo-value approach, we calculated relative risks [RR] of VTE at 1 and 3 years of follow-up. Crude VTE risk for males and females are reported and contrasted after adjustment for established clinical risk factors for VTE.

Results

A total of 32,330 heart failure patients were included, of which 15,238 (47%) were females. For the combined endpoint of VTE, female sex was associated with a higher risk (1-year adjusted RR: 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97–1.73; 3-year adjusted RR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.67) compared to male patients. For the individual endpoints of PE and DVT after 1-year of follow-up, female sex was only associated with a higher risk of PE and not DVT, compared to male patients. However, female sex was associated with a higher risk of both PE and DVT after 3 years of follow-up.

Conclusions

Among incident heart failure patients, female sex is associated with a higher risk of VTE, mainly driven by an excess risk of PE. This finding may help improve clinical decision-making regarding VTE prophylaxis in patients with heart failure.

Keywords

Heart failure Sex Venous thromboembolism Deep vein thrombosis Pulmonary embolism 

Abbreviations

CI

Confidence interval

DVT

Deep vein thrombosis

HF

Heart failure

PE

Pulmonary embolism

RR

Relative risk

VTE

Venous thromboembolism

Notes

Acknowledgements

Line Melgaard, Peter Brønnum Nielsen, and Flemming Skjøth had full access to all of the data in this study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. All authors contributed to the design, analysis, interpretation of data, drafting the article, or revising it critically for important intellectual content and approved the final version to be published. Statistics Denmark provided the data for this study.

Funding

The Obel Family Foundation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Professor Lip: Consultant for Bayer/Janssen, BMS/Pfizer, Biotronik, Medtronic, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, Verseon and Daiichi-Sankyo. Speaker for Bayer, BMS/Pfizer, Medtronic, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Daiichi-Sankyo. No fees are directly received personally. Associate Professor Larsen: An investigator for Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, and Boehringer Ingelheim. Speaker for Bayer, BMS/Pfizer, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Takeda, Roche Diagnostics, and Boehringer Ingelheim. Peter Brønnum Nielsen: Speaker for Boehringer Ingelheim and Bayer Pharma AG; research Grant from BMS/Pfizer. Flemming Skjøth: Consultancy fees from Bayer. Other authors—none declared. Profs Lip and Larsen are guarantors of this paper.

Supplementary material

392_2018_1329_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (87 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 87 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Line Melgaard
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Peter Brønnum Nielsen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thure Filskov Overvad
    • 1
    • 2
  • Flemming Skjøth
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gregory Y. H. Lip
    • 1
    • 4
  • Torben Bjerregaard Larsen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Center of Thrombosis and Drug Research, Department of CardiologyAalborg University HospitalAalborgDenmark
  2. 2.Aalborg Thrombosis Research Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of HealthAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyAalborg University HospitalAalborgDenmark
  4. 4.Institute of Cardiovascular SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

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