Clinical Research in Cardiology

, Volume 107, Supplement 2, pp 114–119 | Cite as

Therapeutic options in advanced heart failure

  • Tarek Bekfani
  • Florian Westphal
  • P. Christian SchulzeEmail author


Despite major advances in pharmacologic therapies for heart failure (HF) with impaired left ventricular function over the past decades, HF is still among the leading causes for recurrent hospitalizations and mortality. HF is a chronic, progressive and ultimately debilitating disease with a high morbidity and in advanced stages with an annual mortality above 50%. Furthermore, it shows a projected rise in prevalence in developed countries [1, 2]. A certain subset of HF patients will progress to develop symptoms that resemble the stage of advanced or “end-stage” heart failure which can be classified into stage D according to the current ACC/AHA guidelines. It is estimated that approximately 5% of all patients with HF can be classified into this advanced group [3]. Stage D HF patients generally show progressive or persistent, severe symptoms, recurrent decompensations attributed to the underlying cardiac dysfunction, despite optimal guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT),...


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tarek Bekfani
    • 1
  • Florian Westphal
    • 1
  • P. Christian Schulze
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of CardiologyUniversity Hospital Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-University JenaJenaGermany

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