Acute coronary syndrome in young women under 55 years of age: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes
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Young women with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may represent a high risk group, but little is known about specific age and sex differences in clinical characteristics, treatment, outcomes, and trends over time.
Data from 3237 men and women admitted with an ACS event from 1999 to 2006 were analyzed. Patients were grouped by sex and age less than 55 years. Demographics, presentation, treatment, and outcomes at 6 months were analyzed. Primary outcomes included mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, rehospitalization, and stroke at 6 months. Secondary analyses assessed risk factors, management, and trends over time.
Women under 55 years represented 8 % of the entire cohort, and 26 % of patients under age 55 years. Compared to older women, young women were more likely to be smokers (51 vs. 14 %, p < 0.001) and obese (44 vs. 34 %, p = 0.006). Young women had more diabetes and hypertension than young men. Mortality was lowest among young women and did not change over time. Young women received less treatment with aspirin, beta blockers, lipid-lowering agents, and ACE inhibitors, and underwent less coronary angiography and stenting than young men (44 vs. 59 %, p < 0.001). Rehospitalization was higher among young women than young men (37 vs. 27 %, p < 0.001), with no change over time.
Modifiable risk factors such as smoking, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension should be addressed in young women. Following ACS, young women received fewer evidence-based medications, were treated less invasively, and had higher readmission rates within 6 months compared to young men.
KeywordsGender ACS Outcomes Young women Disparities
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and conducted in accordance with the ethical standards in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki.
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