Impact of smoking on the outcome of patients treated with drug-eluting stents: 1-year results from the prospective multicentre German Drug-Eluting Stent Registry (DES.DE)
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Cigarette smoking strongly increases morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes, but the relevance of smoking in patients treated with drug-eluting stents (DES) is unknown.
To assess the impact of smoking on the presentation and outcome of patients treated with DES.
Methods and results
We analyzed data from the prospective multicentre German Drug-Eluting Stent Registry (DES.DE) and identified 1,122 patients who had never smoked and 1,052 patients who were current smokers. Smokers were younger (56.5 vs. 69.4 years, p < 0.0001), more often males, with less frequent diabetes and hypertension compared to non-smokers. Smokers presented more often with acute coronary syndromes. After a mean follow-up of 12.5 months, smokers had both higher mortality (4.6 vs. 2.7%, p < 0.05) and myocardial infarction (MI) rates (4.9 vs. 3%, p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between smokers and non-smokers in the rate of target vessel revascularization (9.8 vs. 11.4%, p = 0.26). Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (defined as the composite of death, MI and stroke, MACCE) were higher in smokers (10.6 vs. 6.1%, p < 0.001). Moreover, after adjustment for baseline clinical and angiographic variables, smoking continued to be a strong independent predictor for MACCE (OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.49–3.68). In a subgroup analysis, we found that the increased risk of smoking was most prominent in patients presenting with stable angina pectoris (OR = 3.71, 95% CI 1.24–2.57, p < 0.05). Smoking almost doubled the risk for MACCE in acute MI patients, though this did not reach statistical significance (adjusted OR = 1.91, 95% CI 0.93–3.94, p = 0.74).
This large multicentre DES registry provides evidence that smokers treated with DES, despite lower incidence of predisposing risk factors for atherosclerosis, experience higher rates of death and MI compared to non-smokers, particularly in the setting of stable coronary artery disease. Smoking has only marginal effects on target vessel revascularization rates in patients treated with DES.
KeywordsDrug-eluting stents Smoking Survival Registry Percutaneous coronary intervention Coronary artery disease
Our thanks to the clinical research group at the Herz-Kreislauf Zentrum, Segeberger Kliniken GmbH, especially Mrs. Daniela Schuermann-Kuchenbrandt, Mrs. Kirsten Kassner, Mr. Guido Kassner and Mr. Marcus Ring. This work was supported by Cordis Corporation, a J&J Company and Boston Scientific Corporation. Christoph A. Nienaber and Gert Richardt received lecture fees from Cordis Corporation and Boston Scientific; both are consultants for both companies. Jochen Senges received lecture fees from Cordis. The other co-authors do not report any conflict of interest.
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