Tako-Tsubo syndrome: dying of a broken heart?
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The aim of the article is to review the etiology, pathology and epidemiology of a disease entity named Tako-Tsubo syndrome, receiving this name according to the picture obtained during ventriculography resembling a Japanese octopus trap. The Tako-Tsubo syndrome is a diagnosis encountered in patients with acute coronary syndrome and, therefore, is important to consider.
The literature search was performed in the MEDLINE database to identify the relevant topics. The references reported were used to complete the literature search.
The Tako-Tsubo syndrome is rising in incidence and makes up a relevant part of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The prevalence is described to be 0.6–2.5%. Especially, older women in the postmenopause with emotional stress are affected. The clinical changes and ECG alterations resemble the same characteristics like in acute coronary syndrome; however, the coronary arteries often show no impaired blood flow or only marginal changes. The reason for this syndrome is allocated to stress reactions with increased levels of stress hormones. As well, some patients develop contraction abnormalities like in Tako-Tsubo syndrome during intracranial bleeding, pheochromocytoma, seizures, infectious causes and sepsis, showing that not only emotional stress is responsible for the manifestation of this disease.
The prevalence of Tako-Tsubo syndrome is about 2%, therefore this syndrome has to be considered in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Despite the life-threatening complications during the acute phase, a complete regression of the contraction abnormality is often reported.
KeywordsTako-Tsubo syndrome Broken-heart syndrome Stress-cardiomyopathy Acute coronary syndrome
We thank Dr. Tommaso Gori for his input.
Conflict of interest
None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to disclose.
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