Treatment of heart failure with ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers

What is next? AT1-receptor antagonists?
CRITICAL DEBATE

References

  1. 1.
    Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG, Jessup M, Konstam MA, Mancini DM, Michl K, Oates JA, Rahko PS, Silver MA, Stevenson LW, Yancy CW, Antman EM, Smith SC, Jr, Adams CD, Anderson JL, Faxon DP, Fuster V, Halperin JL, Hiratzka LF, Jacobs AK, Nishimura R, Ornato JP, Page RL, Riegel B (2005) ACC/AHA 2005 Guideline Update for the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Heart Failure in the Adult: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 112:e154–335CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jorde UP, Ennezat PV, Lisker J, Suryadevara V, Infeld J, Cukon S, Hammer A, Sonnenblick EH, Le Jemtel TH (2000) Maximally recommended doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors do not completely prevent ACE-mediated formation of angiotensin II in chronic heart failure. Circulation 101:844–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roig E, Perez-Villa F, Morales M, Jimenez W, Orus J, Heras M, Sanz G (2000) Clinical implications of increased plasma angiotensin II despite ACE inhibitor therapy in patients with congestive heart failure. Eur Heart J 21:53–57CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    van de Wal RM, Plokker HW, Lok DJ, Boomsma F, van der Horst FA, van Veldhuisen DJ, van Gilst WH, Voors AA (2006) Determinants of increased angiotensin II levels in severe chronic heart failure patients despite ACE inhibition. Int J Cardiol 106:367–372CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Okunishi H, Miyazaki M, Toda N(1984) Evidence for a putatively new angiotensin II-generating enzyme in the vascular wall. J Hypertens 2:277–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Urata H, Kinoshita A, Misono KS, Bumpus FM, Husain A (1990) Identification of a highly specific chymase as the major angiotensin II-forming enzyme in the human heart. J Biol Chem 265:22348–22357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Linz W, Wiemer G, Gohlke P, Unger T, Scholkens BA (1995) Contribution of kinins to the cardiovascular actions of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Pharmacol Rev 47:25–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Iyer SN, Chappell MC, Averill DB, Diz DI, Ferrario CM (1998) Vasodepressor actions of angiotensin-(1–7) unmasked during combined treatment with lisinopril and losartan. Hypertension 31:699–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Azizi M, Rousseau A, Ezan E, Guyene TT, Michelet S, Grognet JM, Lenfant M, Corvol P, Menard J (1996) Acute angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition increases the plasma level of the natural stem cell regulator N-acetyl- seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline. J Clin Invest 97:839–844CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carey RM, Wang ZQ, Siragy HM (2000) Role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor in the regulation of blood pressure and renal function. Hypertension 35:155–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Azizi M, Menard J (2004) Combined blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists. Circulation 109:2492–2499CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cohn JN, Tognoni G (2001) A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 345:1667–1675CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McMurray JJ, Ostergren J, Swedberg K, Granger CB, Held P, Michelson EL, Olofsson B, Yusuf S, Pfeffer MA (2003) Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function taking angiotensin-convertingenzyme inhibitors: the CHARMAdded trial. Lancet 362:767–771CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krum H, Carson P, Farsang C, Maggioni AP, Glazer RD, Aknay N, Chiang YT, Cohn JN (2004) Effect of valsartan added to background ACE inhibitor therapy in patients with heart failure: results from Val-HeFT. Eur J Heart Fail 6:937–945CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pfeffer MA, McMurray JJ, Velazquez EJ, Rouleau JL, Kober L, Maggioni AP, Solomon SD, Swedberg K, Van de Werf F, White H, Leimberger JD, Henis M, Edwards S, Zelenkofske S, Sellers MA, Califf RM (2003) Valsartan, captopril, or both in myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both. N Engl J Med 349:1893–1906CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Voors AA, van Veldhuisen DJ (2004) Role of angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with left ventricular dysfunction: lessons from CHARM and VALIANT. Int J Cardiol 97:345–348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    van de Wal RM, van Veldhuisen DJ, van Gilst WH, Voors AA (2005) Addition of an angiotensin receptor blocker to full-dose ACE-inhibition: controversial or common sense? Eur Heart J 26:2361–2367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Juillerat L, Nussberger J, Menard J, Mooser V, Christen Y, Waeber B, Graf P, Brunner HR (1990) Determinants of angiotensin II generation during converting enzyme inhibition. Hypertension 16:564–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Biollaz J, Brunner HR, Gavras I, Waeber B, Gavras H (1982) Antihypertensive therapy with MK 421: angiotensin II — renin relationships to evaluate efficacy of converting enzyme blockade. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 4:966–972CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine IIIUniversity of CologneCologneGermany

Personalised recommendations