Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie

, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 513–526 | Cite as

Diagnostik und Training von Kraft und Gleichgewicht zur Sturzprävention im Alter

Empfehlungen eines interdisziplinären Expertengremiums
  • U. Granacher
  • T. Muehlbauer
  • Y.J. Gschwind
  • B. Pfenninger
  • R.W. Kressig
Übersichten

Zusammenfassung

Der Anteil älterer Menschen an der Gesamtbevölkerung westlicher Industrienationen nimmt stetig zu. Aufgrund biologischer Alterungsprozesse verschlechtern sich Gleichgewichts- und Kraftleistungen im Alter, was eine erhöhte Sturzprävalenz zur Folge hat. Vor diesem Hintergrund müssen überregional anwendbare und einfach umzusetzende Sturzpräventionsprogramme entwickelt werden, die einerseits einen Beitrag zum Erhalt der Autonomie und Lebensqualität älterer Menschen leisten und andererseits die finanzielle Belastung des Gesundheitssystems durch die Behandlung sturzbedingter Verletzungen reduzieren. Im vorliegenden narrativen (qualitativen) Literaturüberblicksbeitrag werden Ursachen für a) eine erhöhte Sturzprävalenz im Alter beschrieben, b) klinische Testverfahren zur Erfassung des Sturzrisikos älterer Menschen vorgestellt und c) evidenzbasierte Trainingsmaßnahmen zur Sturzprävention im Alter präsentiert. Die Erkenntnisse wurden von einem Expertengremium (Geriater, Sportwissenschaftler, Physiotherapeuten, Seniorentrainer) in Form einer öffentlich zugänglichen (Internet) und kostenfreien Handreichung zusammengestellt und werden im vorliegenden Beitrag wissenschaftlich begründet.

Schlüsselwörter

Sturzrisiko Krafttraining Präventive Therapie Bewegungstherapie Gebrechliche ältere Menschen 

Assessment and training of strength and balance for fall prevention in the elderly

Recommendations of an interdisciplinary expert panel

Abstract

The proportion of elderly people in societies of western industrialized countries is continuously rising. Biologic aging induces deficits in balance and muscle strength/power in old age, which is responsible for an increased prevalence of falls. Therefore, nationwide and easy-to-administer fall prevention programs have to be developed in order to contribute to the autonomy and quality of life in old age and to help reduce the financial burden on the public health care system due to the treatment of fall-related injuries. This narrative (qualitative) literature review deals with a) the reasons for an increased prevalence of falls in old age, b) important clinical tests for fall-risk assessment, and c) evidence-based intervention/training programs for fall prevention in old age. The findings of this literature review are based on a cost-free practice guide that is available to the public (via the internet) and that was created by an expert panel (i.e., geriatricians, exercise scientists, physiotherapists, geriatric therapists). The present review provides the scientific foundation of the practice guide.

Keywords

Fall risk Resistance training Preventive therapy Exercise therapy Frail elderly 

Notes

Einhaltung der ethischen Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt. U. Granacher, Reto W. Kressig und Yves J. Gschwind waren als Referenten für die Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung (bfu, Schweiz) tätig. B. Pfenninger steht in einem Beschäftigungsverhältnis zur bfu. T. Muehlbauer gibt an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht. Alle angewandten Verfahren stehen im Einklang mit den ethischen Normen der verantwortlichen Kommission für Forschung am Menschen (institutionell und national) und mit der Deklaration von Helsinki von 1975 in der revidierten Fassung von 2008. Alle Patienten wurden erst nach erfolgter Aufklärung und Einwilligung in die Studie eingeschlossen

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. Granacher
    • 1
  • T. Muehlbauer
    • 1
  • Y.J. Gschwind
    • 2
  • B. Pfenninger
    • 3
  • R.W. Kressig
    • 2
  1. 1.Humanwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Exzellenzbereich Kognitionswissenschaften, Lehrstuhl für Trainings- und BewegungswissenschaftUniversität PotsdamPotsdamDeutschland
  2. 2.Universitäres Zentrum für Altersmedizin BaselFelix Platter-SpitalBaselSchweiz
  3. 3.Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung (bfu)BernSchweiz

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