International Journal of Colorectal Disease

, Volume 32, Issue 9, pp 1303–1311 | Cite as

Bad bacteria in acute appendicitis: rare but relevant

  • Alexander Reinisch
  • Patrizia Malkomes
  • Nils Habbe
  • Wolf Otto Bechstein
  • Juliane Liese
Original Article



Bacterial infections are a factor for morbidity in patients with acute appendicitis (AA). The spreading of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a significant problem in surgery, and the most relevant MDR pathogens are summarized as Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococci (ESKAPE) bacteria. Data regarding the species and distribution of bacteria in AA are available, but information about the resistances and their relevance is deficient.


In this retrospective study, we analyzed microbiological swabs of patients with AA. The outcome parameters of patients after laparoscopic appendectomy were analyzed against microbiological results, including antibiotic resistance testing. Positive swabs were compared with bacteria cultivated after alternative abdominal emergency surgery (AES).


In total, 584 patients with AA were included and had a mean age of 35.5 years. In 216 patients (36.9%), a swab was taken, and in 128 (59.3%) swabs, bacteria could be cultivated. The most frequent organisms were Escherichia coli, Bacteroides species, and Pseudomonas. In 9.4% of the positive AA swabs, MDR germs were cultivated, and all of them were ESKAPE pathogens. Patients with MDR bacteria in AA suffered more infectious complications (p = 0.006) and needed longer hospitalizations (p < 0.009). In AES, aside from appendicitis, a different spectrum containing more MDR bacteria was cultivated (5.9 vs. 20.9%; p < 0.0001).


Although they occur less frequently in appendectomy compared to emergency surgeries for other abdominal diseases, MDR bacteria are traceable in this common disease and contribute to additional morbidity.


Appendicitis Multidrug-resistance ESKAPE Bacterial infection 

Supplementary material

384_2017_2862_MOESM1_ESM.doc (44 kb)
ESM 1(DOC 43 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Reinisch
    • 1
  • Patrizia Malkomes
    • 1
  • Nils Habbe
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wolf Otto Bechstein
    • 1
  • Juliane Liese
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of General and Visceral Surgery, University Hospital FrankfurtGoethe UniversityFrankfurtGermany
  2. 2.General Surgery and Coloproctology, DKD HELIOS Klinik WiesbadenWiesbadenGermany

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