Ultrasonographic evidence of Gatekeeper™ prosthesis migration in patients treated for faecal incontinence: a case series
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Faecal incontinence (FI) is both a medical and social problem, with an underestimated incidence. For patients with internal anal sphincter damage, implantation of biomaterial in the anal canal is a recognised treatment option. One such material, Gatekeeper™, has previously shown promising short- and medium-term results without any major complications, including displacement. The main aim of the present study is to assess the degree to which displacement of Gatekeeper prostheses may occur and to determine whether this is associated with patient outcomes.
Seven patients (six females) with a mean age of 55.6 years [50.5–57.2] and a mean FI duration of 6 ± 2 years were prospectively enrolled in the study. Each subject was anaesthetised and underwent implantation of six prostheses in the intersphincteric region, guided by endoanal 3D ultrasound (3D-EAU). Follow-up was performed at post-interventional months 1, 3, and 12 (median 12 ± 4 months), during which data were obtained from a defaecation diary, Wexner scale assessment, anorectal manometry (ARM), 3D-EAU, and a health status and quality of life questionnaire (FIQL).
At 3-month follow-up, 3D-EAU revealed displacement of 24/42 prostheses in 5/7 patients. Of these, 15 had migrated to the lower portion and 9 to the upper portion of the anal canal and rectum. Despite this migration, treatment was considered successful in 3/7 patients. In one patient, it was necessary to remove a prosthesis due to spontaneous extrusion.
We have shown that displacement of the Gatekeeper™ prosthesis occurs, but is not associated with poorer clinical outcomes.
KeywordsFaecal incontinence Prostheses Migration Endoanal ultrasound Results
Compliance with ethical standards
The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Virgen del Rocío Hospital, and all patients gave written informed consent to participate.