Revised morphology and hemodynamics of the anorectal vascular plexus: impact on the course of hemorrhoidal disease
The pathogenesis of hemorrhoidal disease is based mainly on the vascular hyperplasia theory. The aim of this study was to reassess the morphology and the functional mechanisms of the anorectal vascular plexus with regard to hemorrhoidal disease.
Materials and methods
The anorectal vascular plexus was investigated in 17 anorectal and five hemorrhoidectomy specimens by means of conventional histology and immunohistochemistry. Vascular corrosion casts from two fresh rectal specimens were used for scanning electron microscopy. Transperineal color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) with spectral wave analysis (SWA) was performed in 38 patients with hemorrhoidal disease and 20 healthy volunteers.
The anorectal vascular plexus was characterized by a network of submucosal vessels exhibiting multiple thickened venous vessels separated by distinct sphincter-like constrictions. CDUS and SWA showed significant flow differences in peak velocities (6.8 ± 1.3 cm/s vs. 10.7 ± 1.5 cm/s; P = 0.026) and acceleration velocities (51 ± 4 ms vs. 94 ± 11 ms; P = 0.001) of afferent vessels between the control group and patients with hemorrhoidal disease.
Coordinated filling and drainage of the anorectal vascular plexus is regulated by intrinsic vascular sphincter mechanisms. Both morphological and functional failure of this vascular system may contribute to the development of hemorrhoidal disease.
KeywordsHemorrhoids Anorectal vascular plexus Vascular sphincter Smooth muscle
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 3.Parnaud E, Guntz M, Bernard A, Chome J (1976) Normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the hemorrhoidal vascular system. Arch Fr Mal Appar Dig 65(7):501–514Google Scholar
- 5.Treitz W (1853) Ueber einen neuen Muskel am Duodenum des Menschen, ueber elastische Sehnen, und einige andere anatomische Verhältnisse. Viertel Jahrschrift Prak Heilkunde (Prager) 37:133–144Google Scholar
- 9.Aharinejad SH, Lametschwandtner A (1992) Microvascular corrosion casting in scanning electron microscopy. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
- 10.Motta PM, Murakami T, Fujita H (1992) Scanning electron microscopy of vascular casts: methods and applications. Kluwer, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar