The effects of tobacco consumption on paternity rates of adults with a history of cryptorchidism

  • Rafael Fernández AtuanEmail author
  • Elena Calleja Aguayo
  • Blanca Estors Sastre
  • Natalia Álvarez García
  • Alexander Siles Hinojosa
  • Paolo Bragagnini Rodríguez
  • Jesus Gracia Romero
Original Article



To determine the effect of tobacco consumption on paternity rates in men with a history of cryptorchidism. To compare the paternity rates between formerly unilateral, bilateral cryptorchid smokers, and nonsmokers.


A retrospective cohort study of 153 men who had undergone orchiopexy between 1961 and 1985 at the Miguel Servet University Hospital (116 unilateral and 37 bilateral) and a control group of 100 men were evaluated by review of medical records and a questionnaire.


A total of 197 men filled the questionnaire (76.7%). There was no difference in paternity rates between smokers compared to nonsmokers (P = 0.21). In the unilateral cryptorchid men (ULC) group, there is no difference in paternity rates when compared with the controls (P = 0.079) or when comparing ULC smokers to ULC nonsmokers (P = 0.35). In the bilateral cryptorchid men (BLC) group, there is no difference in paternity rates when compared to controls (P = 0.075) or when comparing BLC smokers to BLC nonsmokers (P = 0.36). When comparing according to consumption, there is no difference between mild, moderate or heavy smoker cases and controls.


There is no difference in paternity rates between men with a history of cryptorchidism that consume tobacco compared to nonsmokers or controls. More studies are needed to determine the impact of tobacco consumption in formerly cryptorchid men.


Cryptorchidism Tobacco Paternity Fertility 


Author contributions

All the authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation and data collection were performed by Dr. RF, Dr. EC and Dr. BE. Analysis was performed by Dr. NÁ, Dr. ASH and Dr. PB. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Dr. RF and all the authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All the authors read and approved the final manuscript. The study was supervised by Dr. JG.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.

Research involving human participants

This retrospective study was approved by the Aragonese Institute of Health Sciences and approved by the ethical committee for research of the autonomous community of Aragon (CEICA) N°CP12/2014.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael Fernández Atuan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elena Calleja Aguayo
    • 2
  • Blanca Estors Sastre
    • 2
  • Natalia Álvarez García
    • 3
  • Alexander Siles Hinojosa
    • 4
  • Paolo Bragagnini Rodríguez
    • 1
  • Jesus Gracia Romero
    • 5
  1. 1.Hospital Universitario Miguel ServetZaragozaSpain
  2. 2.Hospital Universitari Son EspasesPalmaSpain
  3. 3.Consorcio Corporación Sanitaria Parc TauliSabadellSpain
  4. 4.Hospital Sant Joan de DeuEsplugues de LlobregatSpain
  5. 5.Clínica HLA Montpellier ZaragozaZaragozaSpain

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