Independent risk factors for contralateral patent processus vaginalis undetected by pre-operative ultrasonography in boys with unilateral inguinal hernia

  • Hyun-uk Jo
  • Dae Seon Yoo
  • Jinsung Park
  • Hyun Sik Park
  • Hyun Bin Shin
  • Seung Hyo WooEmail author
Original Article



Many trials have been done to make sure probability of metachronous contralateral side hernia (MCH) and contralateral patent processus vaginalis (CPPV). But the necessity of contralateral side exploration is still on debate. The aim is to investigate the risk factors for the consideration of contralateral examination on operation.

Materials and methods

The study was designed as retrospectively. Patients with unilateral inguinal hernia from January 2010 to May 2015 were enrolled. Pre-operative ultrasonography was done in all patients. Patients with obvious contralateral side hernia on pre-operative US were excluded. The presence of CPPV was evaluated by transinguinal laparoscopy during the operation.


In univariate analysis, hernial sac size only shows difference (P value: 0.001). The others, location of the hernia, age at surgery, gestational age (preterm), low birth weight and parent’s age, did not show statistically significant differences. Multivariate analysis also demonstrates CPPV is more common in patients with large hernial sac (Odds ratio: 2.727, 95% confidence interval 1.495–4.974, P value: 0.001).


We propose that surgeons should consider contralateral evaluation during operation in case with large ipsilateral hernial sac, although CPPV was not detected by pre-operative US.


Inguinal hernia Metachronous hernia Contralateral patent processus vaginalis Risk factors 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None declared.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was not obtained because this study was done retrospectively.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urology, Eulji University HospitalEulji University School of MedicineDaejeonSouth Korea

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