Pediatric Surgery International

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 21–27 | Cite as

Pyloric stenosis: an enigma more than a century after the first successful treatment

  • Yousef El-Gohary
  • Abdelhafeez Abdelhafeez
  • Elizabeth Paton
  • Ankush Gosain
  • Andrew J. MurphyEmail author
Review Article


Despite hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) being one of the most frequently treated pediatric surgical conditions, its etiology remains incompletely understood. We review the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with an emphasis on the evolution of surgical techniques that led to laparoscopic pyloromyotomy, the most frequently performed technique for HPS today. In addition, we review key developments in the understanding of HPS etiology and treatment, including the postulated etiology of work-induced hypertrophy of the pylorus, its association with prokinetic macrolide antibiotics, and the emerging role of atropine sulfate as a medical treatment for HPS or a rescue treatment for incomplete myotomy.


Pyloric stenosis Pyloromyotomy Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy Macrolide 



This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (WMV 18474 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgerySt. Jude Children’s Research HospitalMemphisUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of SurgeryUniversity of Tennessee Health Sciences CenterMemphisUSA

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