Pediatric Surgery International

, Volume 33, Issue 9, pp 955–959 | Cite as

Surgical management and outcomes of ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma-intermixed

  • Tianyou Yang
  • Yongbo Huang
  • Tao Xu
  • Tianbao Tan
  • Jiliang Yang
  • Jing Pan
  • Chao Hu
  • Jiahao Li
  • Yan ZouEmail author
Original Article



Clinical researches about the management and outcomes of ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma-intermixed are limited. We report the surgical outcomes of ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma-intermixed in a single institution.


Ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma-intermixed diagnosed and resected between May 2009 and May 2015 in a tertiary children’s hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Patients’ demographic data, INSS stage, surgical complications, residual tumor size and outcomes were collected.


Thirty-four patients were included in the current study. All had localized tumors and were surgically managed. The overall acute complications rates were 8.8% (3/34) and none were fatal. Thirty-three of 34 patients had at least macroscopic tumor resection. Six patients had radiographically detected residual tumor after surgery, 25 none and 3 undocumented. Thirty-three (97.1%) patients were alive during a median follow-up of 36 months (range 1–82). In subgroup analysis, no significant difference regarding surgical complications and survival was found between ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma-intermixed. Increased complete resection rates were observed in thoracic tumor compared with abdominal ones (p = 0.03). However, no significant difference (p = 0.089) regarding overall survival was found between patients with residual tumors and those without. Of the six patients with residual tumors, three showed complete resolution, two were unchanged and one died 3 years after initial surgery (the only death in this study).


Ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma-intermixed can be safely and effectively resected, the residual tumor seems not to influence overall survival.


Neuroblastic tumor Ganglioneuroma Ganglioneuroblastoma Surgery 



This study was funded by the National natural science foundation of China (Grant Number 81602199), Guangzhou Science Technology and Innovation Commission (Grant Number 201607010395), Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant Number 2016A030313496).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to declare. No honorarium, grant or other form of payment was given to anyone to produce the manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center (Guangzhou, China), which waived the need for informed consent for the retrospective collection of demographic, clinical and hospital outcome data. All patient records/data were anonymized and de-identified prior to analysis. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards

Consent for publication

All the authors have approved the manuscript and agree with submission to your esteemed journal.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tianyou Yang
    • 1
  • Yongbo Huang
    • 2
  • Tao Xu
    • 3
  • Tianbao Tan
    • 1
  • Jiliang Yang
    • 1
  • Jing Pan
    • 1
  • Chao Hu
    • 1
  • Jiahao Li
    • 1
  • Yan Zou
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Surgery, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical CenterGuangzhou Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical UniversityGuangzhou Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of Hematology and Oncology, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical CenterGuangzhou Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina

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