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Pediatric Surgery International

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 269–283 | Cite as

Pediatric appendicitis: state of the art review

  • Rebecca M. RenteaEmail author
  • Shawn D. St. Peter
  • Charles L. Snyder
Review Article

Abstract

Appendicitis is a common cause of abdominal pain in children. The diagnosis and treatment of the disease have undergone major changes in the past two decades, primarily as a result of the application of an evidence-based approach. Data from several randomized controlled trials, large database studies, and meta-analyses have fundamentally affected patient care. The best diagnostic approach is a standardized clinical pathway with a scoring system and selective imaging. Non-operative management of simple appendicitis is a reasonable option in selected cases, with the caveat that data in children remain limited. A minimally invasive (laparoscopic) appendectomy is the current standard in US and European children’s hospitals. This article reviews the current ‘state of the art’ in the evaluation and management of pediatric appendicitis.

Keywords

Appendicitis Appendectomy Scoring system Laparoscopy Abscess Children Pediatric Non-operative management Abdominal pain Right lower quadrant 

Abbreviations

AIR

Appendicitis inflammatory response

BMI

Body mass index

CI

Confidence interval

CRP

C-reactive protein

CT

Computed tomography

ED

Emergency department

GALT

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue

ICU

Intensive care unit

IR

Interventional Radiology

LOS

Length of stay

LR

Likelihood ratio

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NPV

Negative predictive value

NSQIP

National Surgical Quality Improvement Program

PA

Perforated appendicitis

PAS

Pediatric Appendicitis Score

PHIS

Pediatric Health Information Systems

PPV

Positive predictive value

RCT

Randomized controlled trial

SSI

Surgical site infection

US

Ultrasound

WBC

White blood cell

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no disclosures or conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebecca M. Rentea
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shawn D. St. Peter
    • 1
  • Charles L. Snyder
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryChildren’s Mercy HospitalKansasUSA

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