Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) associated with Hirschsprung’s disease: a systematic review
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Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), a term introduced in the late 1990s accounts for 30–50 % of cases of end-stage renal disease in children. The association of urogenital anomalies and Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) based on the common genetic background of enteric nervous system and human urinary tract development has been well described in the literature. However, the reported prevalence of HSCR associated with CAKUT seems to be underestimated. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the prevalence of this association and show its relationship to other syndromes.
A systematic literature search was conducted for relevant articles published between 1955 and 2014. Two online databases were searched for the terms “Hirschsprung’s disease”, “congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract”, “urogenital anomalies” and “urological anomalies”. All published studies containing adequate clinical data were included. Resulting publications were reviewed for epidemiology, genetic testing, operative treatment and morbidity. Reference lists were screened for additional cases.
A total of 32 articles reported 222 cases of HSCR associated with either CAKUT, “urological” or “urogenital” anomalies from 1955 to 2014. Gender was reported in a total of 68 cases, with 54 (79 %) males and 14 (21 %) females. Extent of aganglionosis was reported in 67 cases and included classical rectosigmoid disease in 38, long-segment aganglionosis in 12, total colonic aganglionosis in 12 and total intestinal aganglionosis in 5 patients. 18 articles reported 204 cases of either CAKUT, “urological” or “urogenital” anomalies in a case series of 5.693 HSCR patients, resulting in an overall prevalence of 3.6 % of this association. Within this collective of 18 studies only seven were, regardless of the date of publication compatible with CAKUT criteria introduced and published in the late 1990s. These seven studies reported a total of 72 patients with associated CAKUT among 757 HSCR patients resulting in a prevalence of 9.5 %. After introduction of the CAKUT acronym, only three studies specifically investigated the association of HSCR and CAKUT stating a prevalence of 14.3 % resulting in an almost fivefold increase compared to the reported prevalence of HSCR and associated urological and urogenital anomalies. The remaining 14 publications reported 18 single cases of HSCR patients with associated CAKUT phenotypes. Of these 18 cases, 11 (61 %) cases were associated with other syndromes or syndromatic features or reported chromosomal anomalies.
This review confirms that the recognition of CAKUT in HSCR patients has been underestimated in the past. The results suggest that when confronted with HSCR in a patient, a thorough urological investigation may be indicated. The high prevalence of associated syndromes in HSCR with CAKUT may further suggest a syndromic association.
KeywordsHirschsprungs’s disease CAKUT Congenital urological anomalies
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