Pediatric Surgery International

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 401–406 | Cite as

Translation and cultural adaptation of the Hirschsprung’s Disease/Anorectal Malformation Quality of life Questionnaire (HAQL) into Swedish

  • Helena Wigander
  • Björn Frenckner
  • Tomas Wester
  • Margret Nisell
  • Maria Öjmyr-Joelsson
Original Article



Children with anorectal malformation or Hirschsprung’s Disease (HD) often have functional problems with constipation or incontinence. The Hirschsprung’s Disease/Anorectal malformation Quality of life Questionnaire (HAQL) developed in the Netherlands is a disease-specific instrument measuring the quality of life (QoL) of children and adolescents with fecal incontinence. HAQL includes several domains with questions concerning diet, laxatives, constipation, diarrhea, urine and fecal incontinence, in addition to social and emotional functioning, body image, and physical symptoms. The purpose of the study was to translate and culturally adapt the HAQL questionnaire into Swedish.


The translation was carried out according to accepted translation guidelines and a backward/forward translation method was used.


The translation correlated well with the original. All in all the Swedish and the Dutch versions agreed well. The Swedish translators chose to use a more simplified language in the questionnaires intended for the children, but used another choice of words in the proxy version and the adolescents’ version.


The translation of the HAQL instrument into Swedish gives us a disease-specific QoL instrument for children and adolescents born with HD and anorectal malformations (ARM). The translated and culturally adapted HAQL instrument is included in a survey regarding children and adolescents born with ARM.


Quality of life (QoL) Anorectal malformation Hirschsprung’s Disease HAQL Translation Cultural adaptation 



The authors wish to thank the First of May Flower Annual Campaign, the Kempe-Carlgrenska Foundation, the Crown Princess Lovisa Foundation and the Ebba Danelius Foundation for their financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helena Wigander
    • 1
  • Björn Frenckner
    • 1
  • Tomas Wester
    • 1
  • Margret Nisell
    • 2
  • Maria Öjmyr-Joelsson
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Women’s and Children’s HealthAstrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital, Karolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit, Department of Women’s and Children’s HealthAstrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital, Karolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden

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