Pediatric Surgery International

, Volume 26, Issue 12, pp 1135–1148 | Cite as

Clinical risk factors for gastroschisis and omphalocele in humans: a review of the literature

  • Polina Frolov
  • Jasem Alali
  • Michael D. Klein
Review Article


Gastroschisis and omphalocele are usually considered together since they are both congenital abdominal wall defects, and yet their anatomy, embryogenesis, and clinical presentation and problems are quite different. In addition, it appears that the risk factors for their occurrence differ. Etiologic factors contributing to the development of these defects are unknown. To investigate this we have reviewed reports of risk factors for each anomaly and report them here. We conducted a literature search using PubMed ( for risk factors implicated in the development of gastroschisis and omphalocele. The data reviewed here from clinical studies in the literature, closely parallels the data in animal studies which we reported earlier. There is little evidence for a genetic cause in the development of gastroschisis and much evidence supporting the possibility that environmental teratogens are important contributors to the development of this defect. On the other hand, in the case of omphalocele, there was little evidence for environmental factors and substantial data indicating that genetic or familial factors may play an important role.


Abdominal wall defect Gastroschisis Omphalocele Teratogens Risk factors Associated anomalies 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Children’s Hospital of MichiganWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA

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