Pediatric Surgery International

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 871–878 | Cite as

Gastroschisis: an update

  • Andrew J. A. HollandEmail author
  • Karen Walker
  • Nadia Badawi
Review Article


Gastroschisis (GS) continues to increase in frequency, with several studies now reported an incidence of between 4 and 5 per 10,000 live births. The main risk factor would seem to be young maternal age, and it is in this group that the greatest increase has occurred. Whilst various geographical regions confer a higher risk, the impact of several other putative risk factors, including smoking and illicit drug use, may be less important than when first identified in early epidemiological studies. Over 90% of cases of GS will now be diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound, but its value in determining the need for early delivery remains unclear. There would appear no clear evidence for either routine early delivery or elective caesarean section for infants with antenatally diagnosed GS. Delivery at a centre with paediatric surgical facilities reduces the risk of subsequent morbidity and should represent the standard of care. The relative roles of primary closure, staged closure and ward reduction, with or without general anaesthesia, appear less clear with considerable variation between centres in both the use of these techniques and subsequent surgical outcomes. Survival rates continue to improve, with rates well in excess of 90% now routine. The limited long-term developmental data available would suggest that normal or near-normal outcomes may be expected although there remains a need for further studies.


Gastroschisis Incidence Risk factors Antenatal diagnosis Treatment strategies Neurodevelopmental outcomes 


  1. 1.
    Wilson RD, Johnson MP (2004) Congenital abdominal wall defects: an update. Fetal Diagn Ther 19:385–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bernstein P (1940) Gastroschisis, a rare teratological condition in the newborn. Arch Pediatr 57:505–513Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    David AL, Tan A, Curry J (2008) Gastroschisis: sonographic diagnosis, associations, management and outcome. Prenat Diagn 28:633–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Islam S (2008) Clinical care outcomes in abdominal wall defects. Curr Opin Pediatr 20:305–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jacob C, Langer M (2003) Abdominal wall defects. World J Surg 27:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maksoud-Filho JG, Tannuri U, da Silva MM et al (2006) The outcome of newborns with abdominal wall defects according to the method of abdominal closure: the experience of a single center. Pediatr Surg Int 22:503–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee TC, Barshes NR, Nguyen L et al (2005) Gastroschisis and biliary atresia in a neonate: uncommon presentation or common precipitant. Eur J Pediatr Surg 15:434–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gow KW, Bhatia A, Saad DF et al (2006) Left-sided gastroschisis. Am Surg 72:637–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Suver D, Lee SL, Shekherdimian S et al (2008) Left-sided gastroschisis: higher incidence of extraintestinal congenital anomalies. Am J Surg 195:663–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen CP (2007) Ruptured omphalocele with extracorporeal intestines mimicking gastroschisis in a fetus with Turner syndrome. Prenat Diagn 27:1067–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weber TR, Au-Fliegner M, Downard CD et al (2002) Abdominal wall defects. Curr Opin Pediatr 14:491–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kiesewtter WB (1957) Gastroschisis: report of a case. AMA Arch Surg 75:28–30Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bianchi A, Dickson AP (1998) Elective delayed reduction and no anesthesia: ‘minimal intervention management’ for gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg 33:1338–1340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schlatter M, Norris K, Uitvlugt N et al (2003) Improved outcomes in the treatment of gastroschisis using a preformed silo and delayed repair approach. J Pediatr Surg 38:459–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goulet O, Sauvat F (2006) Short bowel syndrome and intestinal transplantation in children. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9:304–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zaccara B, Iacobelli A, Calzolari A et al (2003) Cardiopulmonary performances in young children and adolescents born with large abdominal wall defects. J Paediatr Surg 38:478–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moore TC (1963) Gastroschisis with antenatal evisceration of intestines and urinary bladder. Ann Surg 158:263–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mann L, Ferguson-Smith MA, Desai M et al (1984) Prenatal assessment of anterior abdominal wall defects and their prognosis. Prenat Diagn 4:427–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lafferty PM, Emmerson AJ, Fleming PJ et al (1989) Anterior abdominal wall defects. Arch Dis Child 64:1029–1031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moore TC (1977) Gastroschisis and omphalocele: clinical differences. Surgery 82:561–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tan KH, Kilby MD, Whittle MJ et al (1996) Congenital anterior abdominal wall defects in England and Wales 1987–93: retrospective analysis of OPCS data. Br Med J 313:903–906Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rankin J, Dillon E, Wright C (1999) Congenital anterior abdominal wall defects in the north of England, 1986–1996: occurrence and outcome. Prenat Diagn 19:662–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rankin J, Pattenden S, Abramsky L et al (2005) Prevalence of congenital anomalies in five British regions, 1991–99. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 90:F374–F379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Loane M, Dolk H, Bradbury I (2007) Increasing prevalence of gastroschisis in Europe 1980–2002: a phenomenon restricted to younger mothers? Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 21:363–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Laughon M, Meyer R, Bose C et al (2003) Rising birth prevalence of gastroschisis. J Perinatol 23:291–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Feldkamp ML, Carey JC, Sadler TW (2007) Development of gastroschisis: review of hypotheses, a novel hypothesis, and implications for research. Am J Med Genet 143A:639–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Forrester MB, Merz RD (2006) Comparison of trends in gastroschisis and prenatal illicit drug use rates. J Toxicol Environ Health 69:1253–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mac BT, Robbins JM, Druschel C et al (2009) Demographic and environmental risk factors for gastroschisis and omphalocele in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. J Pediatr Surg 44:1546–1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hougland KT, Hanna AM, Meyers R et al (2005) Increasing prevalence of gastroschisis in Utah. J Pediatr Surg 40:535–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lam PK, Torfs CP (2006) Interaction between maternal smoking and malnutrition in infant risk of gastroschisis. Birth Defects Res Clin Mol Teratol 76:182–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Siega-Riz AM, Olshan AF, Werler MM et al (2006) Fat intake and the risk of gastroschisis. Birth Defects Res Clin Mol Teratol 76:241–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Torfs CP, Christianson RE, Iovannisci DM et al (2006) Selected gene polymorphisms and their interaction with maternal smoking, as risk factors for gastroschisis. Birth Defects Res Clin Mol Teratol 76:723–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Werler MM (2006) Teratogen update: pseudoephedrine. Birth Defects Res Clin Mol Teratol 76:445–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Werler MM, Mitchell AA, Moore CA et al (2009) Is there epidemiologic evidence to support vascular disruption as a pathogenesis of gastroschisis? Am J Med Genet 149A:1399–1406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Werler MM, Sheehan JE, Mitchell AA (2002) Maternal medication use and risks of gastroschisis and small intestinal atresia. Am J Epidemiol 155:26–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fielder HM, Poon-King CM, Palmer SR et al (2000) Assessment of impact on health of residents living near the Nant-y-Gwyddon landfill site: retrospective analysis. Br Med J 320:19–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hwang P-J, Kousseff BG (2004) Omphalocele and gastroschisis: an 18 year review study. Genet Med 6:232–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vermeij-Keers C, Hartwig NG, van der Werff JF (1996) Embryonic development of the ventral body wall and its congenital malformations. Semin Pediatr Surg 5:82–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Murphy FL, Mazlan TA, Tarheen F et al (2007) Gastroschisis and exomphalos in Ireland 1998–2004. Does antenatal diagnosis impact on outcome? Pediatr Surg Int 23:1059–1063PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vegunta RK, Wallace LJ, Leonardi MR et al (2005) Perinatal management of gastroschisis: analysis of a newly established clinical pathway. J Pediatr Surg 40:528–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Drewett M, Michailidis GD, Burge D (2006) The perinatal management of gastroschisis. Early Hum Dev 82:305–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Richmond S, Atkins J (2005) A population-based study of the prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformation over 16 years. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 112:1349–1357Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Algert CS, Bowen JR, Hadfield RM et al (2008) Birth at hospitals with co-located paediatric units for infants with correctable birth defects. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 48:273–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fillingham A, Rankin J (2008) Prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and survival of gastroschisis. Prenat Diagn 28:1232–1237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Davis RP, Treadwell MC, Drongowski RA et al (2009) Risk stratification in gastroschisis: can prenatal evaluation or early postnatal factors predict outcome? Pediatr Surg Int 25:319–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Palomaki GE, Hill LE, Knight GJ et al (1988) Second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in pregnancies associated with gastroschisis and omphalocele. Obstet Gynecol 71:906–909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nicholas SS, Stamilio DM, Dicke JM et al (2009) Predicting adverse neonatal outcomes in fetuses with abdominal wall defects using prenatal risk factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol 201:383–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cedergren M, Selbing A (2006) Detection of fetal structural abnormalities by an 11–14-week ultrasound dating scan in an unselected Swedish population. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 85:912–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Luton D, Guibourdenche J, Vuillard E et al (2003) Prenatal management of gastroschisis: the place of the amnioexchange procedure. Clin Perinatol 30:551–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Reid KP, Dickinson JE, Doherty DA (2003) The epidemiologic incidence of congenital gastroschisis in Western Australia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:764–768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Srivastava V, Mandhan P, Pringle K et al (2009) Rising incidence of gastroschisis and exomphalos in New Zealand. J Pediatr Surg 44:551–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kandasamy Y, Whitehall J, Gill A et al (2010) Surgical management of gastroschisis in North Queensland from 1988 to 2007. J Paediatr Child Health 46(1–2):40–44Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Puligandla PS, Janvier A, Flageole H et al (2004) The significance of intrauterine growth restriction is different from prematurity for the outcome of infants with gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg 39:1200–1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Towers CV, Carr MH (2008) Antenatal fetal surveillance in pregnancies complicated by fetal gastroschisis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:686–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Payne NR, Pfleghaar K, Assel B et al (2009) Predicting the outcome of newborns with gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg 44:918–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fleet MS, de La Hunt MN (2000) Intestinal atresia with gastroschisis: a selective approach to management. J Pediatr Surg 35:1323–1325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lawson A, de La Hunt MN (2001) Gastroschisis and undescended testis. J Pediatr Surg 36:366–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lao OB, Larison C, Garrison MM et al (2010) Outcomes in neonates with gastroschisis in U.S. children’s hospitals. Am J Perinatol 27:97–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Franchi-Teixeira AR, Weber Guimaraes BM, Nogueira B et al (2005) Amniotic fluid and intrauterine growth restriction in a gastroschisis fetal rat model. Fetal Diagn Ther 20:494–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Japaraj RP, Hockey R, Chan FY (2003) Gastroschisis: can prenatal sonography predict neonatal outcome? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 21:329–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Marder AL, Moise K Jr, Chuang A et al (2008) Amnioexchange for the treatment of gastroschisis—an in vitro study to determine the volume and number of exchanges needed. Fetal Diagn Ther 23:95–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kohl T, Tchatcheva K, Stressig R et al (2009) Is there a therapeutic role for fetoscopic surgery in the prenatal treatment of gastroschisis? A feasibility study in sheep. Surg Endosc 23:1499–1505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fasching G, Haeusler M, Mayr J et al (2005) Can levels of interleukins and matrix metalloproteinases in the amniotic fluid predict postnatal bowel function in fetuses with gastroschisis? J Pediatr Surg 40:1887–1891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cohen-Overbeek TE, Hatzmann TR, Steegers EA et al (2008) The outcome of gastroschisis after a prenatal diagnosis or a diagnosis only at birth. Recommendations for prenatal surveillance. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 139:21–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ledbetter DJ (2006) Gastroschisis and omphalocele. Surg Clin North Am 86:249–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chabra S (2006) Management of gastroschisis: prenatal, perinatal and neonatal. Neoreviews 7:e419–e427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Salomon LJ, Mahieu-Caputo D, Jouvet P et al (2004) Fetal home monitoring for the prenatal management of gastroschisis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 83:1061–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Abdel-Latif ME, Bolisetty S, Abeywardana S et al (2008) Mode of delivery and neonatal survival of infants with gastroschisis in Australia and New Zealand. J Pediatr Surg 43:1685–1690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lausman AY, Langer JC, Tai M et al (2007) Gastroschisis: what is the average gestational age of spontaneous delivery? J Pediatr Surg 42:1816–1821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bond SJ, Harrison MR, Filly RA et al (1988) Severity of intestinal damage in gastroschisis: correlation with prenatal sonographic findings. J Pediatr Surg 23:520–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Moir CR, Ramsey PS, Ogburn PL et al (2004) A prospective trial of elective preterm delivery for fetal gastroschisis. Am J Perinatol 21:289–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Logghe HL, Mason GC, Thornton JG et al (2005) A randomized controlled trial of elective preterm delivery of fetuses with gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg 40:1726–1731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Huang J, Kurkchubasche AG, Carr SR et al (2002) Benefits of term delivery in infants with antenatally diagnosed gastroschisis. Obstet Gynecol 100:695–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Maramreddy H, Fisher J, Slim M et al (2009) Delivery of gastroschisis patients before 37 weeks of gestation is associated with increased morbidities. J Pediatr Surg 44:1360–1366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mozurkewich E, Chilimigras J, Koepke E et al (2009) Indications for induction of labour: a best-evidence review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 116:626–636Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Houben C, Davenport M, Ade-Ajayi N et al (2009) Closing gastroschisis: diagnosis, management, and outcomes. J Pediatr Surg 44:343–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nick AM, Bruner JP, Moses R et al (2006) Second-trimester intra-abdominal bowel dilation in fetuses with gastroschisis predicts neonatal bowel atresia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 28:821–825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Skarsgard ED, Claydon J, Bouchard S et al (2008) Canadian Pediatric Surgical Network: a population-based pediatric surgery network and database for analyzing surgical birth defects. The first 100 cases of gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg 43:30–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Piper HG, Jaksic T (2006) The impact of prenatal bowel dilation on clinical outcomes in neonates with gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg 41:897–900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Clark RH, Walker MW, Gauderer MW (2009) Prevalence of gastroschisis and associated hospital time continue to rise in neonates who are admitted for intensive care. J Pediatr Surg 44:1108–1112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Segel SY, Marder SJ, Parry S et al (2001) Fetal abdominal wall defects and mode of delivery: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 98:867–873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Marven S, Owen A (2008) Contemporary postnatal surgical management strategies for congenital abdominal wall defects. Semin Pediatr Surg 17:222–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kitchanan S, Patole SK, Muller R et al (2000) Neonatal outcome of gastroschisis and exomphalos: a 10-year review. J Paediatr Child Health 36:428–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Singh SJ, Fraser A, Leditschke JF et al (2003) Gastroschisis: determinants of neonatal outcome. Pediatr Surg Int 19:260–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Robilio D, Greve L, Towner D (2001) Gastroschisis outcomes and the site of delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185:S244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chiu B, Lopoo J, Hoover JD et al (2006) Closing arguments for gastroschisis: management with silo reduction. J Perinat Med 34:243–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jensen AR, Waldhausen JH, Kim SS (2009) The use of a spring-loaded silo for gastroschisis: impact on practice patterns and outcomes. Arch Surg 144:516–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Allotey J, Davenport M, Njere I et al (2007) Benefit of preformed silos in the management of gastroschisis. Pediatr Surg Int 23:1065–1069PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fischer JD, Chun K, Moores DC et al (1995) Gastroschisis: a simple technique for staged silo closure. J Pediatr Surg 30:1169–1171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Owen A, Marven S, Jackson L et al (2006) Experience of bedside preformed silo staged reduction and closure for gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg 41:1830–1835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hong L, Wu YM, Yan ZL et al (2010) Modified silo technique—an easy and effective method to improve the survival rate of neonates with gastroschisis in Shanghai. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 148:31–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Banieghbal B, Gouws M, Davies MR (2006) Respiratory pressure monitoring as an indirect method of intra-abdominal pressure measurement in gastroschisis closure. Eur J Pediatr Surg 16:79–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Davies MW, Kimble RM, Cartwright DW (2005) Gastroschisis: ward reduction compared with traditional reduction under general anesthesia. J Pediatr Surg 40:523–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kimble RM, Singh SJ, Bourke C et al (2001) Gastroschisis reduction under analgesia in the neonatal unit. J Pediatr Surg 36:1672–1674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bianchi A, Dickson AP, Alizai NK (2002) Elective delayed midgut reduction—no anesthesia for gastroschisis: selection and conversion criteria. J Pediatr Surg 37:1334–1336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Dolgin SE, Midulla P, Shlasko E (2000) Unsatisfactory experience with ‘minimal intervention management’ for gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg 35:1437–1439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rao SC, Pirie S, Minutillo C et al (2010) Ward reduction of gastroschisis in a single stage without general anaesthesia may increase the risk of short-term morbidities: results of a retrospective audit. J Paediatr Child Health (in press)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Davies MW, Kimble RM, Woodgate PG (2002) Ward reduction without general anaesthesia versus reduction and repair under general anaesthesia for gastroschisis in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD003671Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Salihu HM, Emusu D, Aliyu ZY et al (2004) Mode of delivery and neonatal survival of infants with isolated gastroschisis. Obstet Gynecol 104:678–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sharp M, Bulsara M, Gollow I et al (2000) Gastroschisis: early enteral feeds may improve outcome. J Paediatr Child Health 36:472–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Charlesworth P, Njere I, Allotey J et al (2007) Postnatal outcome in gastroschisis: effect of birth weight and gestational age. J Pediatr Surg 42:815–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    van Eijck FC, Wijnen RM, van Goor H (2008) The incidence and morbidity of adhesions after treatment of neonates with gastroschisis and omphalocele: a 30-year review. J Pediatr Surg 43:479–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Teoh L, Wong CK, Martin H et al (2005) Anterior abdominal wall defects and biliary obstruction. J Paediatr Child Health 41:143–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nathan JD, Rudolph JA, Kocoshis SA et al (2007) Isolated liver and multivisceral transplantation for total parenteral nutrition-related end-stage liver disease. J Pediatr Surg 42:143–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Curry JI, Lander AD, Stringer MD (2004) A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the prokinetic agent erythromycin in the postoperative recovery of infants with gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg 39:565–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ng E, Shah VS (2008) Erythromycin for the prevention and treatment of feeding intolerance in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD001815Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lunzer H, Menardi G, Brezinka C (2001) Long-term follow-up of children with prenatally diagnosed omphalocele and gastroschisis. J Matern Fetal Med 10:385–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Berseth CL, Malachowski N, Cohn RB et al (1982) Longitudinal growth and late morbidity of survivors of gastroschisis and omphalocele. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1:375–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    South AP, Marshall DD, Bose CL et al (2008) Growth and neurodevelopment at 16 to 24 months of age for infants born with gastroschisis. J Perinatol 28:702–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Henrich K, Huemmer HP, Reingruber B et al (2008) Gastroschisis and omphalocele: treatments and long-term outcomes. Pediatr Surg Int 24:167–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Walker K, Holland AJ, Winlaw D et al (2006) Neurodevelopmental outcomes and surgery in neonates. J Paediatr Child Health 42:749–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Minutillo C, Pirie S, McMichael J, Dickinson JE, Rao SC (2009) Neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants with gastroschisis in Western Australia: a retrospective study. J Paediatr Child Health 45:A60Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew J. A. Holland
    • 1
    Email author
  • Karen Walker
    • 2
  • Nadia Badawi
    • 2
  1. 1.Douglas Cohen Department of Paediatric Surgery, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney Medical SchoolThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Neonatology, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney Medical SchoolThe University of SydneyNSWAustralia

Personalised recommendations