Evidence-based adjustment of antibiotic in pediatric complicated appendicitis in the era of antibiotic resistance
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Antibiotic resistance is a global issue especially in developed areas. With the emergence of antibiotic resistant-bacteria, the traditional choice of broad spectrum antibiotics may not be effective in complicated appendicitis. We herein report the bacteriology and antibiotic susceptibility of intra-operative peritoneal culture in children with acute appendicitis in Hong Kong. This may guide us to adjust the choice of antibiotics with evidence.
A retrospective review of all cases of children who underwent laparoscopic appendicectomy from 2003 to 2007 was performed. Data including histology of appendixes, the choice of antibiotics, bacteriology, and antibiotic susceptibility of the intra-operative peritoneal cultures were analyzed.
Over a 5-year period, 250 children were included in this study. 41 children had gangrenous- and 77 had ruptured appendicitis, respectively. Peritoneal swab was taken in 158 children. Common bacteria isolated including E. coli, Streptococcus, and Bacteroides. Ampicillin, cefuroxime, and metronidazole were our choice of antibiotics. 26% of children with gangrenous- and 25% with ruptured appendicitis were insensitive to the current regime. Using 3 antibiotics regime by switching cefuroxime to ceftazidime, it covered 77% resistant bacteria. Using 4 antibiotics regime by adding gentamycin, it covered 96% resistant bacteria.
One-fourth of children with gangrenous or ruptured appendicitis were insensitive to the current regime. This study provides evidence-based information on the choice of antibiotics.
KeywordsAntibiotic Bacteriology Pediatric Appendicitis