Clitoroplasty: past, present and future
This paper reviews the history of clitoral surgery throughout the twentieth century. The changing operations, from amputation through to attempts to produce a normal clitoris mirror the changing attitudes and available knowledge. It also examines the current issues that arise out of available data on long-term outcomes of clitoroplasty.
KeywordsClitoromegaly Clitoroplasty Intersex Ambiguous genitalia Surgery
We thank Dr. H. E. O’Connell for permitting us to use the anatomical sketch of female external genitalia, which was adapted from her thesis. We also thank publishers Springer-Verlag for allowing us to reproduce the illustrations of the surgical technique, which were first published in the Pediatric Surgery International in 1991.
- 1.Young HH (1937) Genital abnormalities, hermaphroditism and related adrenal disease. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 103–105Google Scholar
- 3.Mininberg DT (1981) Phalloplasty in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J Urol 128:355–356Google Scholar
- 15.Passerini-Glazel G (1989) A new one-stage procedure for clitorovaginoplasty in severely masculinised female pseudohermaphrodites. J Urol 142:565–568, 572Google Scholar
- 16.Gonsalez R, Fernandes ET (1990) Single stage feminisation genitoplasty. J Urol 143:776–778Google Scholar
- 17.Hutson JM, Voight RW, Luthra M, Kelly JH, Fowler R (1991) Girth-reduction clitoroplasty—a new technique: experience with 37 cases. Pediatr Surg Int 6:336–340Google Scholar
- 26.Creighton SM (2004) Long-term outcome of feminising surgery: the London experience. Br J Urol Int 93(suppl3):44–46Google Scholar
- 29.Schober JM, Meyer-Bahlberg HFL, Ransley PG (2004) Self-assessment of genital anatomy, sexual sensitivity and function in women: implications for genitoplasty. Br J Urol Int 94:589–594Google Scholar
- 30.Reiner WG (2004) Mixed-method research for child outcomes in intersex conditions. Br J Urol Int 93(suppl3):51–53Google Scholar