Clitoroplasty: past, present and future
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This paper reviews the history of clitoral surgery throughout the twentieth century. The changing operations, from amputation through to attempts to produce a normal clitoris mirror the changing attitudes and available knowledge. It also examines the current issues that arise out of available data on long-term outcomes of clitoroplasty.
KeywordsClitoromegaly Clitoroplasty Intersex Ambiguous genitalia Surgery
We thank Dr. H. E. O’Connell for permitting us to use the anatomical sketch of female external genitalia, which was adapted from her thesis. We also thank publishers Springer-Verlag for allowing us to reproduce the illustrations of the surgical technique, which were first published in the Pediatric Surgery International in 1991.
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