The acute scrotum in the paediatric population is a clinical dilemma where a definitive diagnosis can only truly be made at surgical exploration. We postulate that surgical exploration in all cases allows truly accurate diagnoses, treats the torted appendage testes and enables the validity of clinical signs associated with scrotal pathology to be assessed. We retrospectively reviewed all boys less than 15 years old who presented to our institution with scrotal pain over a 2 year period. A total of 121 patients attended of whom 113 had exploratory surgery, 31 (27%) had testicular torsion, 64 (57%) had a torted appendage testis, 12 (11%) had epididymitis, 1 (1%) had fat necrosis and 5 (4%) had no abnormality detected. On exploration 9 (29%) of the torted testis were unsalvageable and thus required excision. The initial clinical impression was frequently demonstrated to be flawed. Two patients with testicular torsion presented with a painless swelling and two further patients had necrotic testes despite a history of pain for less than 4 h. A normal cremasteric reflex and a visible blue dot were detected in boys with testicular torsion. Doppler ultrasound scans were not reliable with 50% sensitivity to clearly differentiate between torsion of the testis and that of the appendage testis. Absolute dependence on clinical features can lead to a misdiagnosis of testicular torsion. The surgical treatment of torted appendage testis is safe, allowing accurate diagnosis and pain relief with minimal morbidity. Early scrotal exploration of all cases with testicular pain ensures maximal testicular salvage.
Testicular Torsion Epididymitis Paediatric Emergency Department Scrotal Pain Acute Scrotum
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