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Climate Dynamics

, Volume 53, Issue 11, pp 6979–6993 | Cite as

Dynamical connection between the stratospheric Arctic vortex and sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic

  • Dingzhu Hu
  • Zhaoyong Guan
  • Yipeng GuoEmail author
  • Chuhan Lu
  • Dachao Jin
Article

Abstract

We used two long-term reanalysis datasets and time-slice simulations to examine the decadal relationship between the stratospheric Arctic vortex (SAV) and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the North Atlantic and the dynamic mechanisms involved in the linkage between the two. Our results show that there is a significant decadal linkage between SSTAs over the North Atlantic and the SAV, where warmed (cooled) SSTAs over the North Atlantic in association with its principal mode correspond to a weakened (strengthened) SAV. The warmed North Atlantic SSTAs tend to result in a weakened SAV via two dynamic processes: (1) constructive interference at high latitudes with a ridge in the Atlantic sector and a trough in the Pacific accompanied by a negative North Atlantic Oscillation-like pattern over the North Atlantic and a weakened Aleutian low over the North Pacific; and (2) more wavenumber-1 waves propagated into the Arctic stratosphere by modifying the baroclinic term of the zonal mean background state and altering the propagating conditions around the tropopause over the Arctic. Results from reanalysis and model simulations both suggest that a strengthening wave intensity in the high-latitude troposphere and more upward propagation of the planetary wavenumber-1 wave in response to the warmed North Atlantic SSTAs conjunctly contribute to the increased planetary wave flux in the Arctic stratosphere, facilitating a weakened SAV. These results provide a new understanding of what dynamic processes control the SAV, and will help to predict the stratosphere on decadal timescales.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Professor Andrew Charlton-Perez for useful comments and suggestions. We are also grateful to the groups and agencies for providing the datasets used in this study. The NCEP1 reanalysis data used here was obtained from the NOAA-CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center and are accessible at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov, the JRA55 reanalysis data was obtained from https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data, the ERA-Interim data was available online at https://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/data/interim-full-daily/levtype5sfc/, and the HadISST data was obtained from the Met Office Hadley Centre, are available at http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/hadisst/data. This work was supported jointly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41975073, 41805031, 41705057), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (BK20160949, BK20170637), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project (2019T120415), and the Startup Foundation for Introducing Talent of NUIST (2017r040).

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disasters of China Ministry of Education (KLME), Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change (ILCEC), Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters (CIC-FEMD)Nanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Mesoscale Severe Weather, Ministry of Education, and School of Atmospheric SciencesNanjing UniversityNanjingChina

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