Land–atmosphere interaction over the Indo-China Peninsula during spring and its effect on the following summer climate over the Yangtze River basin

  • Chujie Gao
  • Haishan Chen
  • Gen LiEmail author
  • Hedi Ma
  • Xinyu Li
  • Shangmin Long
  • Bei Xu
  • Xing Li
  • Xinmin Zeng
  • Hong Yan
  • Ziqian Wang
  • Song Yang


Land–atmosphere interaction plays an important role in regional weather and climate. Using the soil moisture (SM) data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System V2.0, the present study examines the land–atmosphere interaction during spring over the Indo-China Peninsula (ICP) and its effect on the following summer climate over the Yangtze River basin. The analyses show that the abnormal SM over the ICP in spring would significantly change the local surface air temperature by affecting the evapotranspiration. In particular, such a SM effect on the local air temperature can persist to the following summer owing to a strong ICP SM memory, which can in turn influence the East Asian summer monsoon as well as the remote precipitation and temperature over the Yangtze River basin. The persistent abnormally lower (higher) SM over the ICP induces less (more) local evapotranspiration, increasing (decreasing) the surface temperature. The resultant anomalous heating (cooling) over the ICP raises (lowers) the local geopotential height, which attracts (repels) the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) extending westward. Accompanied by an excessive westward extension of the summer WPSH, an anomalously enhanced southwesterly wind would bring more moisture to the Yangtze River basin at the lower troposphere. This situation intensifies the Meiyu front and precipitation over the Yangtze River basin. Further thermodynamic and dynamic analyses support that the monsoonal circulation anomalies associated with the westward extension of the WPSH mainly contribute to the summer precipitation anomalies over the Yangtze River basin. In addition, more precipitation accompanied with more cloud cover and less downward solar radiation that reduce the local air temperature, and vice versa. This highlights that the spring SM over the ICP is an important predictor for the following summer climate over the East Asia. The implication for predicting extreme weather events in summer over the Yangtze River basin is also discussed.


Soil moisture Indo-China Peninsula Land–atmosphere interaction East Asian summer monsoon Yangtze River basin Meiyu front 



This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2018B03114 and 2019B18814), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2019M651665), the Open Research Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology of China (SKLLQG1806), the Natural Science Foundation of China (41861144013, 41831175, 41690123, 41690120, and 41406026), and the Research Fund Program of Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Climate Change and Natural Disaster Studies (2017CCND003).


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of OceanographyHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesXi’anChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education/International Joint Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change/Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological DisastersNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  4. 4.Hubei Key Laboratory for Heavy Rain Monitoring and Warning Research, Institute of Heavy RainChina Meteorological AdministrationWuhanChina
  5. 5.Zhejiang Early Warning Center, Zhejiang Meteorological BureauHangzhouChina
  6. 6.Shanghai Institute of Meteorological ScienceShanghaiChina
  7. 7.Institute of Earth Climate and Environment System, School of Atmospheric SciencesSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  8. 8.Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Climate Change and Natural Disaster StudiesSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina

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