A multi-proxy quantitative record of Holocene hydrological regime on the Heixiazi Island (NE China): indications for the evolution of East Asian summer monsoon

  • Zhenqing Zhang
  • Qiang Yao
  • Thomas A. Bianchette
  • Kam-biu Liu
  • Guoping Wang


The Holocene hydrological regime on the Heixiazi Island is critical for understanding the evolution of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) for the island’s climate-sensitive location on the northern fringe of the EASM domain. In this paper, a marsh depression on the central island was selected to reconstruct the locally hydrological variation and to discuss its indications for the Holocene EASM evolution. This work is based on multi-proxy (magnetic susceptibility, grain size, loss-on-ignition, and carbonate content) analyses of 22 modern sedimentary samples with a water-level gradient of 0–66 cm and 100 cored sedimentary samples covering last ~ 9.0 ka BP. The proxies’ hydrological significance was previously interpreted by the 22 modern samples using linear regression equations to construct their relationships to water-level changes. Among these proxies, the magnetic susceptibility, carbonate content, as well as the Md and sand fraction of grain size exhibit high-level relationships against the water-level changes with R2 > 0.6. Thus, these four proxies’ linear-regression equations were selected and used on the 100 cored samples, and the Holocene water-level changes in the studied depression were quantitatively reconstructed. It shows that two relatively high water-level stages with strengthened EASM occurred during 8.0–4.5 ka BP and 3.0–1.4 ka BP, which were alternated by three low water-level stages with declined EASM during ~ 9.0–8.0 ka BP, 4.5–3.0 ka BP, and 1.4–0 ka BP, respectively. Among these fluctuations, the highest water-level stage with most strengthened EASM which is defined as the Holocene Monsoon Maximum occurred during 6.4–4.5 ka BP. Such a new evolution pattern of the EASM can be further supported by a large variety of records from monsoon-margin regions. We suggest the Holocene EASM evolution was generally associated with the thermal conditions in both the inner Eurasia landmass and the West Pacific Ocean, with an exception of the weak EASM before 8.0 ka BP due to the enhanced Siberia High with the dominance of the Eurasia ice sheet in the early Holocene.


Holocene Marsh Monsoon Sedimentology Hydrology Sanjiang plain 



This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41671094 and 41871098), the Foundation for Young Scientists Group of Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS (No. DLSXZ1604), and the Scientific and Technological Development Program of Jilin Province (20160520081JH).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and AgroecologyChinese Academy of SciencesChangchunChina
  2. 2.Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, College of the Coast and EnvironmentLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Natural SciencesUniversity of Michigan-DearbornDearbornUSA

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