Advertisement

Climate Dynamics

, Volume 52, Issue 9–10, pp 6109–6119 | Cite as

Declining diurnal temperature range in the North China Plain related to environmental changes

  • Weitao Xue
  • Jianping GuoEmail author
  • Yong Zhang
  • Shunwu ZhouEmail author
  • Yuan Wang
  • Yucong Miao
  • Lin Liu
  • Hui Xu
  • Jian Li
  • Dandan Chen
  • Huan Liu
Article

Abstract

The decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR) observed in most regions are generally linked to the increase in cloud cover. However, declining clouds and rising aerosols observed over the North China Plain (NCP) of China make it elusive to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind the declining DTR observed in this region. Here, we analyze the changes in DTR characteristics in the NCP based on 54-year surface temperature observations, in combination with collocated environmental variable measurements. Overall, there is a significant declining trend of DTR from 1960 to 2014 at a rate of − 0.12 °C/decade, largely due to a larger increase in minimum temperature during the night. The cloud effect on DTR is further explored by comparing DTR under clear-sky and overcast conditions, which exhibits a distinct annual cycle with a minimum in summer and a maximum in winter. The decreasing rate of DTR under overcast condition is − 0.30 °C/decade, much faster than the rate of − 0.17 °C/decade under clear-sky condition, indicating steady increases in the nighttime warming effect of middle- or high-clouds. Also, the elevated aerosol concentration could contribute to the declining DTR, due to the cooling effect of aerosols. Moreover, the effect induced by sunshine duration and water vapor on DTR cannot be ignored either. All of the aforementioned environmental variables combine to affect the long-term trend of DTR, despite their different roles in modulating DTR. Our findings call for better understanding of the influence of environmental factors on regional climate system at the diurnal timescale.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study is supported by the National Key R&D Program of China under Grants 2017YFC1501401 and 2016YFA0602003, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 91544217, 41771399, 91637101, and 41705002, and the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences under Grant 2017Z005. The authors extend sincere gratitude to the Editor and anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments that help improve the manuscript.

Supplementary material

382_2018_4505_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2712 KB)

References

  1. Albrecht B (1989) Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness. Science 245:1227–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boucher O, Randall D, Artaxo P, Bretherton C, Feingold G, Forster P, Kerminen VM, Kondo Y, Liao H, Lohmann U, Rasch P, Satheesh SK, Sherwood S, Stevens B, Zhang XY (2013) Clouds and Aerosols. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds.) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. Braganza K, Karoly DJ, Arblaster JM (2004) Diurnal temperature range as an index of global climate change during the twentieth century. Geophys Res Lett 31(13):L13217.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL01999 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Campbell GG, Vonder Haar TH (1997) Comparison of surface temperature minimum and maximum and satellite measured cloudiness and radiation budget. J Geophys Res Atmos 102(D14):16639–16645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang D, Song Y, Liu B (2009) Visibility trends in six megacities in China 1973–2007. Atmos Res 94(2):161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen T, Guo J, Li Z, Zhao C, Liu H, Cribb M, Wang F, He J (2016) A CloudSat perspective on the cloud climatology and its association with aerosol perturbation in the vertical over East China. J Atmos Sci 73:3599–3616.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-15-0309.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen D, Guo J, Wang H, Li J, Min M, Zhao W, Yao D (2018) The cloud top distribution and diurnal variation of clouds over East Asia: preliminary results from Advanced Himawari Imager. J Geophys Res Atmos 123(7):3724–3739.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JD028044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CMA (2007) Specifications for Surface Meteorological Observation Part 3: measurement of meteorological visibility. CMA: QX/T 47-2007. China Meteorological Administration, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen J, Lecoeur E, Ng DHL (2017) Decadal-scale relationship between measurements of aerosols, land-use change, and fire over Southeast Asia. Atmos Chem Phys 17:721–743.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-721-2017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Craig CD, Faulkenberry GD (1979) The application of ridit analysis to detect trends in visibility. Atmos Environ 13(12):1617–1622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dai A, Trenberth KE, Karl TR (1999) Effects of clouds, soil moisture, precipitation, and water vapor on diurnal temperature range. J Clim 12(8):2451–2473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Leeuw G, Sogacheva L, Rodriguez E, Kourtidis K, Georgoulias AK, Alexandri G, Amiridis V, Proestakis E, Marinou E, Xue Y van der AR (2018) Two decades of satellite observations of AOD over mainland China using ATSR-2, AATSR and MODIS/Terra: data set evaluation and large-scale patterns. Atmos Chem Phys 18:1573–1592.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-1573-2018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ding Y (1994) Monsoons over China. Adv Atmos Sci 11:252–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Durre I, Wallace JM (2001) Factors influencing the cold-season diurnal temperature range in the United States. J Clim 14(15):3263–3278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Easterling DR, Peterson TC (1995) A new method for detecting undocumented discontinuities in climatological time series. Int J Climatol 15(4):369–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Easterling DR et al (1997) Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe. Science 277(5324):364–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eastman R, Warren SGA (2013) 39-yr survey of cloud changes from land stations worldwide 1971–2009: long-term trends, relation to aerosols, and expansion of the Tropical belt. J Clim 26:1286–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elliott WP, Gaffen DJ (1991) On the Utility of Radiosonde Humidity Archives for climate studies. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 72(10):1507–1520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fan J, Wang Y, Rosenfeld D, Liu X (2016) Review of aerosol-cloud interactions: mechanisms, significance, and challenges. J Atmos Sci 73(11):4221–4252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gong DY, Guo D, Ho CH (2006) Weekend effect in diurnal temperature range in China: opposite signals between winter and summer. J Geophys Res Atmos.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007068 Google Scholar
  21. Guo J, Zhang X, Wu Y, Che H, ba L, Li X (2011) Spatio-temporal variation trends of satellite-based aerosol optical depth in China during 1980–2008. Atmos Environ 45(37):6802–6811.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.03.068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guo J, Deng M, Fan J, Li Z, Chen Q, Zhai P, Dai Z, Li X (2014) Precipitation and air pollution at mountain and plain stations in northern China: insights gained from observations and modeling. J Geophys Res Atmos 119(8):4793–4807.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD021161 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Guo J, Liu H, Wang F, Huang JF, Xia F, Lou MY, Wu YR, Jiang JH, Xie T, Zhaxi Y, Yung YL (2016a) Three-dimensional structure of aerosol in China: a perspective from multi-satellite observations. Atmos Res 178–179:580–589.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.05.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Guo J, Deng M, Lee SS, Wang F, Li Z, Zhai P, Liu H, Lv W, Yao W, Li X (2016b) Delaying precipitation and lightning by air pollution over the Pearl River Delta. Part I: observational analyses. J Geophys Res Atmos 121:6472–6488.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD023257 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guo J, Su T, Li Z, Miao Y, Li J, Liu H, Xu H, Cribb M, Zhai P (2017) Declining frequency of summertime local-scale precipitation over eastern China from 1970 to 2010 and its potential link to aerosols. Geophys Res Lett 44(11):5700–5708.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL073533 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Guo J, Liu H, Li Z, Rosenfeld D, Jiang M, Xu W, Jiang J, He J, Chen D, Min M, Zhai P (2018) Aerosol-induced changes in the vertical structure of precipitation: a perspective of TRMM precipitation radar. Atmos Chem Phys 18:13329–13343.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-13329-2018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hanel G (1976) The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity at thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air. Adv Geophys 19:73–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hartmann DL, Ockert-Bell ME, Michelsen ML (1992) The effect of cloud type on earth’s energy balance: global analysis. J Clim 5(11):1281–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hong G, Yang P, Minnis P, Hu YX, North G (2008) Do contrails significantly reduce daily temperature range? Geophys Res Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036108 Google Scholar
  30. Huang Y, Dickinson RE, Chameides WL (2006) Impact of aerosol indirect effect on surface temperature over East Asia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103(12):4371–4376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis, contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. Jhajharia D, Singh VP (2011) Trends in temperature, diurnal temperature range and sunshine duration in Northeast India. Int J Climaol 31(9):1353–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kaiser DP (2000) Decreasing cloudiness over China: an updated analysis examining additional variables. Geophys Res Lett 27(15):2193–2196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kalnay E, Cai M (2003) Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate. Nature 423(6939):528–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Karl TR et al (1993) A new perspective on recent global warming: asymmetric trends of daily maximum and minimum temperature. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 74(6):1007–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Koren I, Dagan G, Altaratz O (2014) From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds. Science 344(6188):1143–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Koschmieder H (1926) Theorie der horizontalen Sichtweite. Beitsaege Phys Atmos 12:33–55Google Scholar
  38. Lee SS, Guo JP, Li Z (2016) Delaying precipitation by air pollution over Pearl River Delta. Part 2: model simulations. J Geophy Res Atmos 121:11739–11760.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD024362 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Li Q, Zhang H, Liu X, Huang J (2004) Urban heat island effect on annual mean temperature during the last 50 years in China. Theor Appl Climatol 79(3–4):165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li Q, Zhang H, Chen JI, Li W, Liu X, Jones P (2009) A mainland china homogenized historical temperature dataset of 1951–2004. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 90(8):1062–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Li R, Min QR, Harrison LC (2010) A case study: the indirect aerosol effects of mineral dust on warm clouds. J Atmos Sci 67(3):805–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li Z, Lau WK-M, Ramanathan V et al (2016) Aerosol and monsoon climate interactions over Asia. Rev Geophys 54(4):866–929.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015RG000500 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Li Z, Guo J, Ding A, Liao H, Liu J, Sun Y, Wang T, Xue H, Zhang H, Zhu B (2017) Aerosol and boundary-layer interactions and impact on air quality. Natl Sci Rev 4(6):810–833.  https://doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwx117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liu B, Xu M, Henderson M, Qi Y, Li Y (2004) Taking China’s temperature: daily range, warming trends, and regional variations, 1955–2000. J Clim 17(22):4453–4462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Liu L, Guo J, Chen W, Wu R, Wang L, Gong H, Xue W, Li J (2018) Large-scale pattern of the diurnal temperature range changes over East Asia and Australia in boreal winter: a perspective of atmospheric circulation. J Clim 31(7):2715–2728.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0608.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lohmann U, Feichter J (2005) Global indirect aerosol effects: a review. Atmos Chem Phys 5:715–737.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-715-2005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Makowski K, Wild M, Ohmura A (2008) Diurnal temperature range over Europe between 1950 and 2005. Atmos Chem Phys 8(21):6483–6498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Marsh ND, Svensmark H (2000) Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays. Phys Rev Lett 85(23):5004–5007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McNider RT et al (2012) Response and sensitivity of the nocturnal boundary layer over land to added longwave radiative forcing. J Geophys Res Atmos.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017578 Google Scholar
  50. Miao C, Sun Q, Borthwick AG, Duan Q (2016) Linkage between hourly precipitation events and atmospheric temperature changes over China during the warm season. Sci Rep 6:22543.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep22543 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Miao Y, Guo J, Liu S, Liu H, Li Z, Zhang W, Zhai P (2017) Classification of summertime synoptic patterns in Beijing and their association with boundary layer structure and aerosol pollution. Atmos Chem Phys 17:3097–3110.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-3097-2017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Parker DE (2006) A demonstration that large-scale warming is not urban. J Clim 19:2882–2895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pielke RA, Matsui T (2005) Should light wind and windy nights have the same temperature trends at individual levels even if the boundary layer averaged heat content change is the same? Geophys Res Lett 32(21):L21813.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL02447 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Qian Y, Kaiser DP, Leung LR, Xu M (2006) More frequent cloud-free sky and less surface solar radiation in China from 1955 to 2000. Geophys Res Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024586 Google Scholar
  55. Qin K, Wu L, Wong MS, Letu H, Hu M, Lang H, Sheng S, Teng J, Xiao X, Yuan L (2016) Trans-boundary aerosol transport during a winter haze episode in China revealed by ground-based Lidar and CALIPSO satellite. Atmos Environ 141:20–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rosenfeld D, Dai J, Yu X, Yao Z, Xu X, Yang X, Du C (2007) Inverse relations between amounts of air pollution and orographic precipitation. Science 315(5817):1396–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shen X et al (2014) Spatiotemporal change of diurnal temperature range and its relationship with sunshine duration and precipitation in China. J Geophys Res Atmos 119(23):13163–13179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Steeneveld GJ, Holtslag AAM, McNider RT, Pielke RA (2011) Screen level temperature increase due to higher atmospheric carbon dioxide in calm and windy nights revisited. J Geophys Res Atmos.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014612 Google Scholar
  59. Stone D, Weaver A (2003) Factors contributing to diurnal temperature range trends in twentieth and twenty-first century simulations of the CCCma coupled model. Clim Dyn 20(5):435–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Subrahmanyam KV, Kumar KK (2017) CloudSat observations of multi layered clouds across the globe. Clim Dyn 49:327.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3345-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Twomey S (1977) The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds. J Atmos Sci 34(7):1149–1152.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1977)034%3C1149:TIOPOT%3E2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wang K, Dickinson RE (2013) Contribution of solar radiation to decadal temperature variability over land. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(37):14877–14882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wang Y, Wan Q, Meng W, Liao F, Tan H, Zhang R (2011) Long-term impacts of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over the Pearl River Delta megacity area in China. Atmo Chem Phys 11(23):12421–12436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wang F, Guo J, Wu Y, Zhang X, Deng M, Li X, Zhang J, Zhao J (2014a) Satellite observed aerosol-induced variability in warm cloud properties under different meteorological conditions over eastern China. Atmos Environ 84(2):122–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wang Y, Zhang R, Saravanan R (2014b) Asian pollution climatically modulates mid-latitude cyclones following hierarchical modelling and observational analysis. Nat Commun 5:3098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wang F, Guo J, Zhang J, Huang J, Min M, Chen T, Liu H, Deng M, Li X (2015a) Multi-sensor quantification of aerosol-induced variability in warm cloud properties over eastern China. Atmos Environ 113:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.04.063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wang Y, Jiang J, Su H (2015b) Atmospheric responses to the redistribution of anthropogenic aerosols. J Geophys Res Atmos 120(18):9625–9641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wang Y, Ma PL, Jiang J, Su H, Rasch P (2016) Towards reconciling the influence of atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases on light precipitation changes in eastern China. J Geophys Res Atmos 121(10):5878–5887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Warren S, Eastman R, Hahn C (2007) A survey of changes in cloud cover and cloud types over land from surface observations. 1971–1996. J Clim 20:717–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wijngaard JB, Klein Tank AM, Können GP (2003) Homogeneity of 20th century European daily temperature and precipitation series. Int J Climatol 23(6):679–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wild M et al (2005) From dimming to brightening: decadal changes in solar radiation at Earth’s surface. Science 308(5723):847–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wild M, Ohmura A, Makowski K (2007) Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming. Geophys Res Lett 34:L04702.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. WMO (1974) Manual on codes, vol 1. World Meteorological Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  74. WMO (2008) Guide to meteorological instruments and methods of observation. World Meteorological Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  75. Xia X (2010) Spatiotemporal changes in sunshine duration and cloud amount as well as their relationship in China during 1954–2005. J Geophys Res Atmos.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012879 Google Scholar
  76. Xia X (2013) Variability and trend of diurnal temperature range in China and their relationship to total cloud cover and sunshine duration. Ann Geophys 31(5):795–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Yang Y, Wu B, Shi Ch, Zhang J, Li Y, Tang W, Wen H, Zhang H, Shi T (2013) Impacts of urbanization and station-relocation on surface air temperature series in Anhui province, China. Pure Appl Geophys 170(11):1969–1983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yang Y, Russell LM, Lou S, Liao H, Guo J, Liu Y, Singh B, Ghan SJ (2017a) Dust-wind interactions intensify aerosol pollution over eastern China. Nat Commun 8:15333.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms15333 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yang Y, Fu Y, Qin F, Zhu J (2017b) Radiative forcing of the tropical thick anvils evaluated by combining TRMM with atmospheric radiative transfer mode. Atmos Sci Lett 18(5):222–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Yang Y, Zheng X, Gao Z, Wang H, Wang T, Li Y, Lau G, Yim S (2018) Long‐term trends of persistent synoptic circulation events in planetary boundary layer and their relationships with haze pollution in winter half‐year over Eastern China. J Geophys Res Atmos.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028982 Google Scholar
  81. Ye J, Li F, Sun G, Guo A (2009) Solar dimming and its impact on estimating solar radiation from diurnal temperature range in China, 1961–2007. Thror Appl Climatol 101(1–2):137–142Google Scholar
  82. You Q, Min J, Jiao Y, Sillanpää M, Kang S (2016) Observed trend of diurnal temperature range in the Tibetan Plateau in recent decades. Int J Climatol 36(6):2633–2643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yue S, Hashino M (2003) Long term trends of annual and monthly precipitation in Japan. J Am Water Resour Assoc 39(3):587–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zhai P, Eskridge R (1997) Atmospheric water vapor over China. J Clim 10(10):2643–2652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zhang W, Guo J, Miao Y, Liu H, Song Y, Fang Z, He J, Lou M, Yan Y, Li Y, Zhai P (2018) On the summertime planetary boundary layer with different thermodynamic stability in China: a radiosonde perspective. J Clim 31(4):1451–1465.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0231.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhao S, Li J, Sun C (2016) Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Sci Rep 6:27424.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep27424 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zhao C, Qiu Y, Dong X, Wang Z, Peng Y, Li B, Wu Z, Wang Y (2018) Negative aerosol-cloud re relationship from aircraft observations over Hebei, China. Earth Space Sci 5(1):19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zhou L, Dickinson RE, Tian Y, Fang J, Li Q, Kaufmann RK, Tucker CJ, Myneni RB (2004) Evidence for a significant urbanization effect on climate in China. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101(26):9540–9544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhou L, Dickinson RE, Tian Y, Vose RS, Dai Y (2007) Impact of vegetation removal and soil aridation on diurnal temperature range in a semiarid region: application to the Sahel. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(46):17937–17942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhou L, Dai A, Dai Y, Vose RS, Zou C, Tian Y, Chen H (2009a) Spatial dependence of diurnal temperature range trends on precipitation from 1950 to 2004. Clim Dyn 32(2):429–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhou L, Dickinson RE, Dai A, Dirmeyer P (2009b) Detection and attribution of anthropogenic forcing to diurnal temperature range changes from 1950 to 1999: comparing multi-model simulations with observations. Clim Dyn 35(7–8):1289–1307Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Severe WeatherChinese Academy of Meteorological SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Meteorological Observation CenterChina Meteorological AdministrationBeijingChina
  4. 4.Division of Geological and Planetary SciencesCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations