Widespread fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains and possible links to boreal winter teleconnections

  • Dipti HingmireEmail author
  • Ramesh K. Vellore
  • R. Krishnan
  • N. V. Ashtikar
  • Bhupendra B. Singh
  • Sudhir Sabade
  • R. K. Madhura


Boreal wintertime planetary-scale atmospheric circulations and their possible consequences to widespread fog occurrences over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region of the Himalayan valley are investigated in this study. Among the different fog types, radiation fog type seen at night or early morning hours favored by large-scale subsidence aloft and strong near-surface inversion is focused in this study. A composite analysis reveals that upper air circulation associated with 105 fog days over the IGP region show a trail linked to circulation anomalies over the Eurasian continents and the Arctic Circle. The findings suggest that there is a footprint of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and conventional Eurasian (EU) circulation patterns linked to anticyclonic circulation aloft over the IGP region. Although widespread IGP fog occurrences under the large-scale subsidence environment are seen to occur during both phases of AO, the negative AO phase (high pressure environment over the Arctic Circle) portends a greater likelihood for fog occurrences in the IGP region. A coupling of positive mid-tropospheric height anomalies over western Eurasia and the anticyclonic circulation anomalies over the IGP region is evident during the IGP fog periods concomitant with EU positive (height excess over Siberia) phase. Further, anomalous circulation over the IGP region during the fog periods appears to rely more on the strength of the AO negative phase than the circulation strengths over Eurasia. On the contrary, the Eurasian circulation largely appears to influence the subsidence aloft over the IGP region irrespective of the strength of the AO positive phase. It is also noted that upper-air circulation during non-foggy periods over the IGP region has conformity with positive AO phase and rapidly progressing EU pattern. These planetary-scale teleconnection pathways offer new dynamical insights into comprehending widespread IGP fog scenario, which have been hitherto perceived mostly from a regional context.



The authors acknowledge Director, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) for encouraging this work. Datasets obtained from the ECMWF server and from the archives of the Climate Prediction Center are acknowledged. This work is carried out as part of the first author’s doctoral dissertation. We thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions and comments.


  1. Ahmed R, Dey S, Mohan M (2015) A study to improve night time fog detection in the Indo-Gangetic Basin using satellite data and to investigate the connection to aerosols. Meteorol Appl 522:689–693. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Meteorological Society (2017) Fog. Glossary of meteorology.
  3. Badarinath KVS et al (2007) Black carbon aerosols and gaseous pollutants in an urban area in North India during a fog period. Atmos Res 85:209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Badarinath KVS, Kharol SK, Sharma AR, Roy PS (2009) Fog over Indo-Gangetic plains—a study using multisatellite data and ground observations. IEEE J Sel Top Appl Earth Obs Remote Sens 2:185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barlow M, Cullen H, Lyon B (2002) Drought in central and southwest Asia: La Nina, the warm pool, and Indian Ocean precipitation. J Clim 15:697–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnston AG, Livezey RE (1987) Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon Weather Rev 115:1083–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergot T et al (2007) Inter-comparison of single-column numerical models for the prediction of radiation fog. J Appl Met Clim 46:504–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhowmik SKR, Sud AM, Singh C (2004) Forecasting fog over Delhi—an objective method. Mausam 55:313–322Google Scholar
  9. Bhushan B, Trivedi HKN, Bhatia RC, Dube RK, Giri RK, Negi RS (2003) On the persistence of fog over northern parts of India. Mausam 54:851–860Google Scholar
  10. Bott A (1991) On the influence of the physico-chemical properties of aerosols on the life cycle of radiation fogs. Bound Lay Met 56:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bott A, Trautmann T (2002) PAFOG—a new efficient forecast model of radiation fog and low-level stratiform clouds. Atmos Res 64:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Branstator G (2002) Circumglobal teleconnections, the jet stream waveguide, and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J Clim 15:1893–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown R, Roach WT (1976) The physics of radiation fog: II—a numerical study. Q J R Meteorol Soc 102:335–354Google Scholar
  14. Bueh C, Nakamura H (2007) Scandinavian pattern and its climatic Impact. Q J R Meteorol Soc 133:2117–2131. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Byers HR (1959) General meteorology. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Casanueva A (2014) Variability of extreme precipitation over Europe and its relationships with teleconnection patterns. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 18:709–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chang EK, Lee S, Swanson KL (2002) Storm track dynamics. J Clim 15:2163–2183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chang C, Wang Z, Hendon H (2006) The Asian winter monsoon. The Asian Monsoon. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 89–127Google Scholar
  19. Chaurasia S, Sathiyamoorthy V, Paul Shukla B, Simon B, Joshi PC, Pal PK (2011) Night time fog detection using MODIS data over Northern India. Meteorol Appl 18:483–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen J, Saito K, Entekhabi D (2001) The role of the Siberian high in northern hemisphere climate variability. Geophy Res Lett 28:299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen J, Foster J, Barlow M, Kazuyuki S, Jones J (2010) Winter 2009–2010: a case study of an extreme Arctic Oscillation event. Geophy Res Lett 37:L17707. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Croft PJ, Ward B (2015) Fog. In: North GR, Pyle J, Zhang F (eds) Encyclopedia of atmospheric sciences. Academic Press, New York, pp 180–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De US, Dube RK, Rao GP (2005) Extreme weather events over India in the last 100 years. J Ind Geophys Union 9:173–187Google Scholar
  24. Dee DP et al (2011) The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137:553–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dey S (2018) On the theoretical aspects of improved fog detection and prediction in India. Atmos Res 202:77–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Diaz HF, Markgraf V (2000) El Niño and the Southern Oscillation: multiscale variability and global and regional impacts. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dimri AP, Chevuturi A (2016) Western disturbances—an indian meteorological perspective. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dimri AP et al (2015) Western disturbances: a review. Rev Geophys 53:225–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dutta HN, Singh B, Kaushik A (2005) Characterizing atmospheric fog over northern India. In: Proceedings of the 2005 URSI General Assembly. New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  30. Duynkerke PG (1991) Radiation fog: a comparison of model simulation with detailed observations. Mon Weather Rev 119:324–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eichler TP, Gottschalck J (2013) Interannual variability of northern hemisphere storm tracks in coarse-gridded datasets. Adv Meteorol. (Article ID 545463) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ganguly D, Jayaraman A, Rajesh TA, Gadhavi H (2006) Wintertime aerosol properties during foggy and non-foggy days over urban center Delhi and their implications for shortwave radiative forcing. J Geophy Res 111:D15217. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gao T, Yu J, Paek H (2016) Impacts of four northern-hemisphere teleconnection patterns on atmospheric circulations over Eurasia and the Pacific. Theor Appl Climatol 129:815–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gautam R (2014) Challenges in early warning of the persistent and widespread winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains: a satellite perspective. In: Zommers Z, Singh A (eds) Reducing disaster: early warning systems for climate change. Springer, New York, pp 51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gautam R, Hsu NC, Kafatos M, Tsay S-C (2007) Influences of winter haze on fog/low cloud over the Indo-Gangetic plains. J Geophy Res 112:D05207. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. George JJ (1951) Fog. In: Malone TF (ed) Compendium of meteorology. American Meteorological Society, Boston, pp 1179–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ghude SD et al (2017) Winter fog experiment over the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Curr Sci 112:767–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gong D-Y, Ho C-H (2002) The Siberian High and climate change over middle to high latitude Asia. Theor Appl Climatol 72:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gong D-Y, Wang S-W, Zhu J-H (2001) East Asian Winter Monsoon and Arctic Oscillation. Geophy Res Lett 28:2073–2076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Goswami P, Sarkar S (2017) An analogue dynamical model for forecasting fog-induced visibility: validation over Delhi. Meteorol Appl 24:360–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gultepe I et al (2007) Fog research: a review of past achievements and future perspectives. Pure Appl Geophys 164:1121–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hameed S et al (2000) On the widespread winter fog in northeastern Pakistan and India. Geophy Res Lett 27:1891–1894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hara M, Kimura F, Yasunari T (2004) The generating mechanism of western disturbances over the Himalayas. In: 6th international Study Conference on GEWEX in Asia and GAME, Kyoto, Japan.
  44. He S, Gao Y, Li F, Wang H, He Y (2017) Impact of Arctic Oscillation on the East Asian climate: a review. Earth Sci Rev 164:48–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Homeyer CR, Bowman KP (2013) Rossby wave breaking and transport between the tropics and extratropics above the subtropical jet. J Atmos Sci 70:607–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hoskins BJ, Karoly DJ (1981) The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J Atmos Sci 38:1179–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Houghton HG (1985) Physical meteorology. MIT Press, Cambridge, p 442Google Scholar
  48. Izett JG, van de Wiel BJH, Baas P, Bosveld FC (2018) Understanding and reducing false alarms in observational fog prediction. Bound Layer Meteorol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jaswal AK, Narkhede NM, Rachel S (2014) Atmospheric data collection, processing and database management in India Meteorological Department. Proc Indian Natl Sci Acad 80:697–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jayakumar A, Rajagopal EN, Boutle IA, George JP, Mohandas S, Webster S, Aditi S (2018) An operational fog prediction system for Delhi using the 330 m Unified Model. Atmos Sci Lett. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jenamani RK (2012) Micro-climatic study and trend analysis of fog characteristics at IGI airport New Delhi using hourly data (1981–2005). Mausam 63:203–218Google Scholar
  52. Jenamani RK, Tyagi A (2011) Monitoring fog at IGI Airport and analysis of its runway-wise spatio-temporal variations using Meso-RVR network. Curr Sci 100:491–501Google Scholar
  53. Jeong J-H, Ho C-H (2005) Changes in occurrence of cold surges over East Asia in association with Arctic Oscillation. Geophy Res Lett 32:L14704. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaskaoutis DG et al (2014) Synoptic weather conditions and aerosol episodes over Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Clim dyn 43:2313–2331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kaul DS, Gupta T, Tripathi SN (2012) Chemical and microphysical properties of the aerosol during foggy and nonfoggy episodes: a relationship between organic and inorganic content of the aerosol. Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 12:14483–14524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Koračin D, Dorman CE, Lewis JM, Hudson JG, Wilcox E, Torregrosa A (2014) Marine fog: a review. Atmos Res 143:142–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Krishnamurti TN, Jha B, Rasch PJ, Ramanathan V (1997) A high resolution global reanalysis highlighting the winter monsoon. Part I, reanalysis fields. Meteorol Atmos Phys 64:123–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Krishnan R, Sabin TP, Madhura RK, Vellore RK, Mujumdar M, Sanjay J, Nayak S, Rajeevan M (2018) Non-monsoonal precipitation response over the Western Himalayas to climate Change. Clim Dyn. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Leipper DF (1994) Fog on the US west coast: a review. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 75:229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lewis JM, Koračin D, Redmond KT (2004) Sea fog research in the United Kingdom and United States: a historical essay including outlook. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 85:395–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lim Y-K, Kim H-D (2013) Impact of the dominant large-scale teleconnections on winter temperature variability over East Asia. J Geophy Res 118:7835–7848Google Scholar
  62. Lim Y-K, Schubert SD (2011) The impact of ENSO and the Arctic Oscillation on winter temperature extremes in the southeast United States. Geophy Res Lett 38:L15706. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Madhura RK, Krishnan R, Revadekar JV, Mujumdar M, Goswami BN (2015) Changes in western disturbances over the Western Himalayas in a warming environment. Clim Dyn 44:1157–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mason J (1982) The physics of radiation fog. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 60:486–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McIntyre ME, Palmer TN (1983) Breaking planetary waves in the stratosphere. Nature 305:593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mohan M, Payra S (2009) Influence of aerosol spectrum and air pollutants on fog formation in urban environment of megacity Delhi, India. Environ Monit Assess 151:265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Müller MD, Masbou M, Bott A (2010) Three-dimensional fog forecasting in complex terrain. Q J R Meteorol Soc 136:2189–2202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Murakami T (1981) orographic influence of the Tibetan Plateau on the Asiatic winter monsoon circulation part L large-scale aspects. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 59:40–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nair VS et al (2007) Wintertime aerosol characteristics over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP): impacts of local boundary layer processes and long-range transport. J Geophy Res 112:D13205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nakanishi M (2000) Large-eddy simulation of radiation fog. Bound Lay Meteorol 94:461–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Navarra A, Simoncini V (2010) A guide to empirical orthogonal functions for climate data analysis. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Panagiotopoulos F, Shahgedanova M, Stephenson DB (2002) A review of northern hemisphere winter-time teleconnection patterns. J de Phys 12(10):27–47. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Panagiotopoulos F, Shahgedanova M, Hannachi A, Stephenson DB (2005) Observed trends and teleconnections of the Siberian high: a recently declining center of action. J Clim 18:1411–1422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Park T-W, Ho C-H, Yang S (2011) Relationship between the Arctic Oscillation and cold surges over East Asia. J Clim 24:68–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Park T-W, Ho C-H, Jeong J-H, Heo J-W, Deng Y (2015) A new dynamical index for classification of cold surge types over East Asia. Clim Dyn 45:2469–2484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Payra S, Mohan M (2014) Multirule based diagnostic approach for the fog predictions using WRF modelling tool. Adv Meteorol. (Article ID 456065) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Petterssen S (1940) Weather analysis and forecasting. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  78. Pithani P, Ghude SD, Prabhakaran T et al (2018) WRF model sensitivity to choice of PBL and microphysics parameterization for an advection fog event at Barkachha, rural site in the Indo-Gangetic basin, India. Theor Appl Climatol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Prasad AK, Singh RP, Kafatos M (2006) Influence of coal based thermal power plants on aerosol optical properties in the Indo-Gangetic basin. Geophy Res Lett 33:L05805. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pruppacher HR, Klett JD (2010) Microphysics of clouds and precipitation, 2nd edn, vol 18. Springer, Netherlands, pp 954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ramanathan V, Ramana MV (2005) Persistent, widespread, and strongly absorbing haze over the himalayan foothills and the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Pure Appl Geophys 162:1609–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rao YP, Srinivasan V (1969) Discussion of typical synoptic weather situation: winter western disturbances and their associated features. Forecasting Manual Part III, Indian Meteorological DepartmentGoogle Scholar
  83. Ratnam JV et al (2016) ENSO’s far reaching connection to Indian cold waves. Sci Reps. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Roach WT (1994) Back to basics: Fog: part 1—definitions and basic physics. Weather 49:411–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Roach WT (1995) Back to basics: Fog: Part 2—the formation and dissipation of land fog. Weather 50:7–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Roach WT, Brown R, Caughey SJ, Garland JA, Readings CJ (1976) The physics of radiation fog: I—a field study. Q J R Meteorol Soc 102:313–333Google Scholar
  87. Rodionov SN, Overland JE, Bond NA (2005) The Aleutian low and winter climatic conditions in the Bering Sea. Part I: classification. J Clim 18:160–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Roman-Cascon C, Steeneveld GJ, Yague C, Sastre M, Arrillaga JA, Maqueda G (2016) Forecasting radiation fog at climatologically contrasting sites: evaluation of statistical methods and WRF. Q J R Meteorol Soc 142:1048–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sachweh M, Koepke P (1995) Radiation fog and urban climate. Geophys Res Lett 22:1073–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sahsamanoglou HS, Makrogiannis TJ, Kallimopoulos PP (1991) Some aspects of the basic characteristics of the Siberian anticyclone. Int J Climatol 11:827–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Saraf AK, Bora AK, Das J, Rawat V, Sharma K, Jain SK (2011) Winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains: mapping and modelling using remote sensing and GIS. Nat Hazards 58:199–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sathiyamoorthy V, Arya R, Kishtawal CM (2016) Radiative characteristics of fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains during northern winter. Clim Dyn 47:1793–1806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sawaisarje GK, Khare P, Shirke CY, Deepakumar S, Narkhede NM (2014) Study of winter fog over Indian subcontinent: Climatological perspectives. Mausam 65:19–28Google Scholar
  94. Sheridan S, Lee CC (2012) Synoptic climatology and the analysis of atmospheric teleconnections. Prog Phys Geogr 36:548–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Simmons A, Uppala S, Dee D, Kobayashi S (2007) ERA-Interim: new ECMWF reanalysis products from 1989 onwards. ECMWF Newsl 110:25–35Google Scholar
  96. Singh C (2011) Unusual long & short spell of fog conditions over Delhi and northern plains of India during December-January, 2009–2010. Mausam 62:41–50Google Scholar
  97. Singh A, Dey S (2012) Influence of aerosol composition on visibility in megacity Delhi. Atmos Environ 62:367–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Singh DK, Gupta T (2016) Effect through inhalation on human health of PM 1 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons collected from foggy days in northern part of India. J Hazard Mater 306:257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Singh KK, Kalra N (2016) Simulating impact of climatic variability and extreme climatic events on crop production. Mausam 67:113–130Google Scholar
  100. Singh J, Kant S (2006) Radiation fog over north India during winter from 1989 to 2004. Mausam 57:271Google Scholar
  101. Singh S, Singh D (2010) Recent fog trends and its impact on wheat productivity in NW plains in India. In: 5th International Conference on Fog, Fog Collection and Dew Münster, Germany, 25–30 July 2010Google Scholar
  102. Singh N, Sontakke NA (1999) On the variability and prediction of rainfall in the post-monsoon season over India. Int J Clim 19:309–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Singh J, Giri RK, Kant S (2007) Radiation fog viewed by INSAT-1D and Kalpana Geo-stationary Satellite. Mausam 58:251–260Google Scholar
  104. Smoliak BV (2009) A Eurasian pattern of Northern Hemisphere wintertime sea level pressure variability. Master of Science Thesis, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  105. Srivastava SK, Sharma AR, Sachdeva K (2016) A ground observation based climatology of winter fog: study over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. World Acad Sci Eng Technol Int J Environ Chem Ecol Geol Geophys Eng 10:710–721Google Scholar
  106. Stan C, Straus DM, Frederiksen JS, Lin H, Maloney ED, Schumacher C (2017) Review of tropical-extratropical teleconnections on intraseasonal time scales. Rev Geophys 55:902–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Steeneveld GJ, deBode M (2018) Unravelling the relative roles of physical processes in modeling the life cycle of a warm radiation fog. Q J R Meteorol Soc. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Steeneveld GJ, Ronda RJ, Holtslag AAM (2015) The challenge of forecasting the onset and development of radiation fog using mesoscale atmospheric models. Bound Lay Met 154:265–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sun J, Tan B (2013) Mechanism of the wintertime Aleutian low—Icelandic low seesaw. Geophy Res Lett 40:4103–4108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sung M-K, Lim G-H, Kwon W-T, Boo K-W, Kug J-S (2009) Short-term variation of Eurasian pattern and its relation to winter weather over East Asia. Int J Clim 29:771–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Syed FS, Körnich H, Tjernström M (2012) On the fog variability over south Asia. Clim Dyn 39:2993–3005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Taylor GI (1917) The formation of fog and mist. Q J R Met Soc 43:241–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thompson DW, Wallace JM (1998) The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophy Res Lett 25:1297–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tiwari S, Payra S, Mohan M, Verma S, Bisht DS (2011) Visibility degradation during foggy period due to anthropogenic urban aerosol at Delhi, India. Atmos Pollut Res 2:116–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Van der Velde IR, Steeneveld GJ, Wichers Schreur BGJ, Holtslag AAM (2010) Modeling and forecasting the onset and duration of severe radiation fog under frost conditions. Mon Weather Rev 138:4237–4253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Waersted EG, Gaeffelin M. Dupont JC, Delanoe J, Duuisson P (2017) Radiation in fog: quantification of the impact on fog liquid water based on ground-based remote sensing. Atmos Chem Phys 17:10811–10835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Walker M (2003) The science of weather: radiation fog and steam fog. Weather 58:196–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Walker GT, Bliss EW (1932) World Weather V. Mem Roy Met Soc 4:53–84Google Scholar
  119. Wallace JM (2000) North Atlantic oscillation annular mode: two paradigms—one phenomenon. Q J R Meteorol Soc 126:791–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wallace JM, Gutzler DS (1981) Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon Weather Rev 109:784–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wang N, Zhang Y (2015) Evolution of Eurasian teleconnection pattern and its relationship to climate anomalies in China. Clim Dyn 44:1017–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Whan K, Zwiers F (2017) The impact of ENSO and the NAO on extreme winter precipitation in North America in observations and regional climate models. Clim Dyn 48:1401–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wilks DS (2011) Statistical methods in the atmospheric sciences. Academic press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  124. Willett HC (1928) Fog and haze, their causes, distribution and forecasting. Mon Wea Rev 56:435–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. World Meteorological Organization (1992) International Meteorological Vocabulary, WMO No. 182, 2nd edn. Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, p 784Google Scholar
  126. World Meteorological Organization (1993) Guide of the Global Data Processing System. WMO No. 305. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, p 204.
  127. World Meteorological Organization (2011) Guide to climatological practices. WMO-No. 100, 3rd edn. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, p 117.
  128. Yadav RK, Rupa Kumar K, Rajeevan M (2009) Increasing influence of ENSO and decreasing influence of AO/NAO in the recent decades over northwest India winter precipitation. J Geophy Res 114:D12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Climate Change ResearchIndian Institute of Tropical MeteorologyPuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of Atmospheric and Space SciencesSavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia
  3. 3.National Data CentreIndia Meteorological DepartmentPuneIndia
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsModern College of Arts, Sciences and CommercePuneIndia

Personalised recommendations