Climate Dynamics

, Volume 51, Issue 9–10, pp 3251–3273 | Cite as

Decadal change of the south Atlantic ocean Angola–Benguela frontal zone since 1980

  • Edward K. VizyEmail author
  • Kerry H. Cook
  • Xiaoming Sun


High-resolution simulations with a regional atmospheric model coupled to an intermediate-level mixed layer ocean model along with multiple atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses are analyzed to understand how and why the Angola–Benguela frontal Zone (ABFZ) has changed since 1980. A southward shift of 0.05°–0.55° latitude decade−1 in the annual mean ABFZ position accompanied by an intensification of + 0.05 to + 0.13 K/100-km decade−1 has occurred as ocean mixed layer temperatures have warmed (cooled) equatorward (poleward) of the front over the 1980–2014 period. These changes are captured in a 35-year model integration. The oceanic warming north of the ABFZ is associated with a weakening of vertical entrainment, reduced cooling associated with vertical diffusion, and a deepening of the mixed layer along the Angola coast. These changes coincide with a steady weakening of the onshore atmospheric flow as the zonal pressure gradient between the eastern equatorial Atlantic and the Congo Basin weakens. Oceanic cooling poleward of the ABFZ is primarily due to enhanced advection of cooler water from the south and east, increased cooling by vertical diffusion, and shoaling of the mixed layer depth. In the atmosphere, these changes are related to an intensification and poleward shift of the South Atlantic sub-tropical anticyclone as surface winds, hence the westward mixed layer ocean currents, intensify in the Benguela upwelling region along the Namibian coast. With a few caveats, these findings demonstrate that air/sea interactions play a prominent role in influencing the observed decadal variability of the ABFZ over the southeastern Atlantic since 1980.


Angola–Benguela frontal zone Air–sea interactions South Atlantic sub-tropical high Ocean mixed-layer Benguela upwelling region Angola South Atlantic climate variability Coupled regional climate model 



This research was supported by award NNX13AQ76G from NASA’s Physical Oceanography Program. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NASA. The Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) at the University of Texas at Austin provided the high performance computing and database resources. We also gratefully acknowledge the Climate Prediction Division of the Japan Meteorological Agency for the dissemination of JRA-55. ECMWF ERA-Interim data used in this study were obtained from the ECMWF data server.


  1. Balmaseda MA, Vidard A, Anderson DLT (2008) The ECMWF ocean analysis system: ORA-S3. Mon Weather Rev 136:3018–3034. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balmaseda MA, Mogensen K, Weaver A (2013) Evaluation of the ECMWF ocean reanalysis ORAS4. Q J R Meteorol Soc. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baranov EI, Navrotskaya SE, Dubravin VF (1973) The characteristics of the thermohaline structure of waters in the south-eastern Atlantic (in Russian). Tr Shirshov Inst Oceanol 95:39–59Google Scholar
  4. Beal LM, De Ruijter WPM, Biastoch A, Zahn R (2011) On the role of the Agulhas system in ocean circulation and climate. Nature 472:429–436. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Behringer DW, Xue Y (2004) Evaluation of the global ocean data assimilation system at NCEP: the Pacific Ocean. In: Proceedings of paper presented at the eighth symposium on integrated observing and assimilation system for atmosphere, oceans, and land surface, American Meteorology of the Society, Seattle, Wash., 11–15 JanGoogle Scholar
  6. Biastoch A, Schwarzkopf FU, Lutjeharms JRE (2009) Increase in Agulhas leakage due to poleward shift of Southern Hemisphere westerlies. Nature 462:495–498. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Binet D, Gobert B, Maloueki L (2001) El Niño warm events in the Eastern Atlantic (6°N, 20°S) and fish availability from Congo to Angola (1964–1999). Aquat Living Resour 14:99–113. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyer D, Cole J, Bartholomae C (2000) Southwestern Africa: northern Benguela current region. Mar Pollut Bull 41:123–140. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brandt P, Caniaux G, Bourlès B, Lazar A, Dengler M, Funk A, Hormann V, Giordani H, Marin F (2011) Equatorial upper-ocean dynamics and their interaction with the West African monsson. Atmos Sci Lett 12:24–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Breugem WP, Hazeleger W, Haarsma RJ (2006) Multimodel study of tropical Atlantic variability and change. Geophys Res Lett 33.
  11. Burls NJ, Reason CJC, Penven P, Philander SG (2011) Similarities between the tropical Atlantic seasonal cycle and ENSO: an energetics perspective. J Geophys Res 116:C11010. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cabos W, Sein DV, Pinto JG, Fink AH, Koldunov NV, Alvarez F, Izquierdo A, Keenlyside N, Jacob D (2016) The South Atlantic anticyclone as a key player for the representation of the tropical Atlantic climate in coupled climate models. Clim Dyn. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chang P, Ji L, Li H (1997) A decadal climate variation in the tropical Atlantic Ocean from thermodynamic air–sea interactions. Nature 385:516–518. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang P, Zhang R, Hzeleger W, Wen C, Wan X, Link J, Haarsma RJ, Breugem WP, Seidel H (2008) Oceanic link between abrupt changes in the North Atlantic Ocean and the African monsoon. Nat Geosci 1:444–448. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen F, Dudhia J (2001) Coupling an advanced land-surface/hydrology model with the Penn State/NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: model description and implementation. Mon Weather Rev 129:569–585.<0569:CAALSH>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen S-H, Sun W-Y (2002) A one-dimensional time dependent cloud model. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 80:99–118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Choi J, Son S-W, Lu J, Min S-K (2014) Further observational evidence of Hadley cell widening in the Southern Hemisphere. Geophys Res Lett 41:2590–2597. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Colberg F, Reason CJC (2006) A model study of the Angola Benguela frontal zone: sensitivity to atmospheric forcing. Geophys Res Lett 33:L19608. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Colberg F, Reason CJC (2007) Ocean model diagnosis of low-frequency climate variability in the South Atlantic region. J Clim 20:1016–1034. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Collins WD, Rasch PJ, Boville BA, Hack JJ, et al (2004) Description of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0), NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-464 + STR, p 226Google Scholar
  21. Cook KH, Vizy EK (2012) Impact of climate change on mid-21st century growing seasons in Africa. Clim Dyn 39:2937–2955. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cook KH, Vizy EK (2016) The Congo Basin Walker circulation: dynamics and connections to precipitation. Clim Dyn 47:697–717. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Creese A, Washington R (2016) Using qflux to constrain modeled Congo Basin rainfall in the CMIP5 ensemble. J Geophys Res 121:13415–13442. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crétat J, Vizy EK, Cook KH (2014) How well are daily intense rainfall events captured by current climate models over Africa? Clim Dyn 42:2691–2711. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crétat J, Vizy EK, Cook KH (2015) The relationship between African easterly waves and daily rainfall over West Africa. Observations and regional climate simulations. Clim Dyn 44:385–404. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davey MK, Huddleston M, Sperber K et al (2002) STOIC: a study of coupled model climatology and variability in tropical ocean regions. Clim Dyn 18:403–420. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dee DP, Uppla SM, Simmons AJ, Berrisford P, Poli P, Kobayashi S et al (2011) The ERA-interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137:553–597. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dezfuli AK, Nicholson SE (2013) The relationship of rainfall variability in western Equatorial Africa to the tropical oceans and atmospheric circulation. Part II: the boreal autumn. J Clim 26:66–84. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dezfuli AK, Zaitchik BF, Gnanadesikan A (2015) Regional atmospheric circulation and rainfall variability in south equatorial Africa. J Clim 28:809–818. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Doi T, Tozuka T, Sasaki H, Masumoto Y, Yamagata T (2007) Seasonal and interannual variations of oceanic conditions in the Angola Dome. J Phys Oceanogr 37:2698–2713. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dudhia J (1989) Numerical study of convection observed during the winter monsoon experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. J Atmos Sci 46:3077–3107.<3077:NSOCOD>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Duncombe-Rae CM (1991) Agulhas retroflection rings in the South Atlantic Ocean: an overview. S Afr J Mar Sci 11:327–344. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Durgadoo JV, Loveday BR, Reason CJC, Penven P, Biastoch A (2013) Agulhas leakage predominantly responds to the southern hemisphere westerlies. J Phys Oceanogr 43(10):2113–2131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fauchereau N, Trzaska S, Richard Y, Roucou P, Camberlin P (2003) Sea-surface temperature co-variability in the southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans and its connections with the atmospheric circulation in the southern hemisphere. J Clim 23:663–677. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Florenchie P, Lutjeharms JRE, Reason CJC, Masson S, Rouault M (2003) The source of Bengula Niños in the South Atlantic Ocean. Geophys Res Lett 30:1505. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gammelsrød T, Bartholomae CH, Boyer DC, Filipe VLL, O’Toole MJ (1998) Intrusion of warm surface water along the Angolan–Namibian coast in February—March 1995: the 1995 Benguela Niño. S Afr J Mar Sci 19:41–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garzoli SL, Gordon AL, Kamenkovich V, Pillsbury D, Duncombe-Rae C (1996) Variability and sources of the south eastern Atlantic circulation. J Mar Res 54:1039–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Haarsma RJ, Campos EJD, Hazeleger W, Severijns C, Piola AR, Molteni F (2005) Dominant modes of variability in the South Atlantic: a study with a hierarchy of ocean–atmosphere models. J Clim 18:1719–1735. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hagos SM, Cook KH (2009) Development of a coupled regional model and its application to the study of interactions between the West African monsoon and East Tropical Atlantic Ocean. J Clim 22:2591–2604. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hardman-Mountford NJ, Richardson AJ, Agenbag JJ, Hagen E, Nykjaer L, Shillington FA, Villacastin C (2003) Ocean climate of the South East Atlantic observed from satellite data and wind models. Prog Oceanogr 59:181–221. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hart TJ, Currie RI (1960) The Benguela current. Discovery Rep 31:123–297Google Scholar
  42. Hermes JC, Reason CJC (2009) Variability in sea-surface temperature and winds in the tropical southeast Atlantic Ocean and regional rainfall relationships. Int J Climatol 21:11–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hong S-Y, Noh Y, Dudhia J (2006) A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes. Mon Weather Rev 134:2318–2341. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huang B, Schopf PS, Shukla J (2004) Intrinsic ocean—atmosphere variability of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. J Clim 17:2058–2077. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huenerlage K, Buchholz F (2013) Krill of the northern Benguela Current and the Angola–Benguela frontal zone compared: physiological performance and short-term starvation in Euphausia hanseni. J Plankton Res 0:1–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ishii M, Shouji A, Sugimoto S, Matsumoto T (2005) Objective analyses of sea-surface temperature and marine meteorological variables for the 20th century using ICOADS and the KOBE collection. Int J Climatol 25:865–879. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jury MR (1995) A review of research on ocean–atmosphere interactions and South African climate variability. S Afr J Sci 91:289–294Google Scholar
  48. Kain JS (2004) The Kain–Fritsch convective parameterization: an update. J Appl Meteorol 43:170–181.<0170:TKCPAU>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Khovanskiy YA (1962) Some peculiarities of shelf water dynamics off the S. W. African coast (in Russian). Tr Balt Nauchno Issled Inst Rybn Khoz Okeanogr 9:57–69Google Scholar
  50. Kim JH, Schneider RR, Mulitza S, Müller PJ (2003) Reconstruction of SE trade-wind intensity based on sea-surface temperature gradients in the Southeast Atlantic over the last 25 Kyr. Geophys Res Lett 30(22):2144. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kobayashi S, Ota Y, Harada Y, Ebita A, Moriya M, Onoda H, Onogi K, Kamahori H, Kobayashi C, Endo H, Miyaoka K, Takahashi K (2015) The JRA-55 reanalysis: general specifications and basic characteristics. J Meteorol Soc Jpn. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kopte R, Brandt P, Dengler M, Tchipalanga PCM, Macuenia M, Ostrowski M (2017) The Angola current: flow and hydrographic characteristics as observed at 11 degrees S. J Geophys Res Oceans 122:1177–1189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kostianoy AG, Lutjeharms JRE (1999) Atmospheric effects in the Angola–Benguela frontal zone. J Geophys Res 104:20963–20970. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kuderskiy SK (1962) Some peculiarities of currents in the region off S. W. Africa (17–24°S) (in Russian). Tr Balt Nauchno Issled Inst Rybn Khoz Okeanogr 9:39–45Google Scholar
  55. Kuderskiy SK, Strogalev VD (1973) The Angola Current in the tropical zone of the S. E. Atlantic Ocean (in Russian). Tr Atl Nauchno Issled Inst Rybn Khoz Okeanogr 51:5–13Google Scholar
  56. Kumar A, Zhang L, Wang W (2013) Sea surface temperature-precipitation relationship in different reanalyses. Mon Weather Rev 141:1118–1123. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lass HU, Schmidt M, Mohrholz V, Nausch G (2000) Hydrographic and current measurements in the area of the Angola–Benguela front. J Phys Oceanogr 30:2589–2609.<2589:HACMIT>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lu J, Vecchi GA, Reichler T (2007) Expansion of the Hadley cell under global warming. Geophys Res Lett 34:L06805. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lu J, Deser C, Reichler T (2009) Cause of the widening of the tropical belt since 1958. Geophys Res Lett 36:L03803. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lübbecke JF, Böning CW, Keenlyside NS, Xie S-P (2010) On the connection between Benguela and equatorial Atlantic Niños and the role of the South Atlantic anticyclone. J Geophys Res 115:C09015. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lübbecke JF, Durgadoo JV, Biastoch A (2015) Contribution of increased Agulhas leakage to tropical Atlantic warming. J Clim 28:9697–9706. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lutjeharms JRE, Meeuwis JM (1987) The extent and variability of South-East Atlantic upwelling. S Afr J Mar Sci 5:51–62. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lutz K, Jacobeit J, Rathmann J (2015) Atlantic warm and cold water events and impact on African west coast precipitation. Int J Climatol 35:128–141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Marin F, Caniaux G, Bourlès B, Giordani H, Gouriou Y, Key E (2009) Why were sea surface temperatures so different in the eastern equatorial Atlantic in June 2005 and 2006? J Phys Oceanogr 39:1416–1431. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mazeika PA (1967) Thermal domes in the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. Lumnol Oceanogr 12:537–539. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Meeuwis JM, Lutjeharms JRE (1990) Surface thermal characteristics of the Angola–Benguela front. S Afr J Mar Sci 9:261–297. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mlawer EJ, Taubman SJ, Brown PD, Iacono MJ, Clough SA (1997) Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmosphere: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. J Geophys Res 102:16663–16682. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Morioka Y, Tozuka T, Yamagata T (2011) On the growth and decay of the subtropical dipole mode in the South Atlantic. J Clim 24:5538–5554. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Morioka Y, Tozuka T, Masson S, Terray P, Luo J-J, Yamagata T (2012) Subtropical dipole modes simulated in a coupled general circulation model. J Clim 25:4029–4047. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Moroshkin KV, Bubnov VA, Bulatov RP (1970) Water circulation in the southeastern Atlantic. Oceanology 10:38–47Google Scholar
  71. Nguyen H, Evans A, Lucas C, Smith I, Timbal B (2013) The Hadley circulation in reanalyses: climatology, variability, and change. J Clim 26:3357–3376. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nnamchi HC, Li J, Anyadike RNC (2011) Does a dipole mode really exist in the South Atlantic Ocean? J Geophys Res CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nnamchi HC, Li J, Kucharski F, Kang I-S, Keenlyside NS, Chang P, Farneti R (2016) An equatorial–extratropical dipole structure of the Atlantic Niño. J Clim 29:7295–7311. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Patricola CM, Li M, Xu Z, Chang P, Saravanan R, Hsieh J-H (2012) An investigation of tropical Atlantic bias in a high-resolution coupled regional climate model. Clim Dyn 39:2443–2463. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Patricola CM, Saravanan R, Chang P (2014) The impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Atlantic meridional mode on seasonal Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. J Clim 27:5311–5328. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Philander SGH (1986) Unusual conditions in the tropical Atlantic Ocean in 1984. Nature 322:236–238. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Philander SGH, Pacanowski RC (1986) A model of the seasonal cycle of the Tropical Atlantic. J Geophys Res 91:14192–14206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pokam WM, Djiotang LAT, Mkankam FK (2012) Atmospheric water vapor transport and recycling in equatorial central Africa through NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. Clim Dyn 38:1715–1729. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Quan X-W, Diaz HF, Hoerling MP (2004) Change of the tropical Hadley cell since 1950. In: Diaz HF, Bradley RS (eds) The Hadley circulation: present, past and future. Kluwer Academic, Berlin, pp 85–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Quan X-W, Hoerling MP, Perlwitz J, Diaz HF, Xu T (2014) How fast are the tropics expanding? J Clim 27:1999–2013. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reason CJC (2000) Multidecadal climate variability in the subtropics/mid-latitudes of the southern hemisphere oceans. Tellus 52A:203–223. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reason CJC, Smart S (2015) Tropical south east Atlantic warm events and associated rainfall anomalies over southern Africa. Front Environ Sci 3:24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reason CJC, Florenchie P, Rouault M, Veitch J (2006) Influence of large scale climate modes and the Agulhas system variability on the BCLME region. In: Shannon V et al (eds) Benguela: predicting a large marine ecosystem. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 225–241Google Scholar
  84. Reynolds RW, Smith TM, Liu C, Chelton DB, Casey KS, Schlax MG (2007) Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J Clim 20:5473–5496. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Richter I, Xie SP (2008) On the origin of equatorial Atlantic biases in coupled general circulation models. Clim Dyn 31:587–598. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Richter I, Mechoso CR, Robertson AW (2008) What determines the position and intensity of the South Atlantic anticyclone in Austral winter?—an AGCM study. J Clim 21:214–229. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Richter I, Behera SK, Masumoto Y, Taguchi B, Komori N, Yamagata T (2010) On the triggering of Benguela Niños: remote equatorial versus local influences. Geophys Res Lett 37:L20604. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rouault M, Florenchie P, Fauchereau N, Reason CJC (2003) South east tropical Atlantic warm events and southern African rainfall. Geophys Res Lett 30:8009. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rouault M, Illig S, Bartholomae C, Reason CJC, Bentamy A (2007) Propagation and origin of warm anomalies in the Angola Benguela upwelling system in 2001. J Mar Syst 68:473–488. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rouault M, Servain J, Reason CJC, Bourlès B, Rouault MJ, Fauchereau N (2009) Extension of PIRATA in the tropical south-east Atlantic: an initial one-year experiment. Afr J Mar Sci 31:63–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Seidel DJ, Fu Q, Randel WJ, Reichler TJ (2008) Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate. Nat Geosci 1:21–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Servain J, Caniaux G, Kouadio YK, McPhaden MJ, Araujo M (2014) Recent climatic trends in the tropical Atlantic. Clim Dyn 43:3071–3089. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shannon LV (1985) The Benguela ecosystem Part I. Evolution of the Benguela, physical features and processes. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 23:105–182. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shannon LV, Taunton-Clerk J (1989) Long-term environmental indices for the ICSEAF area. Selected Papers of the International Commission on SE Atlantic Fisheries 1, pp 5–15Google Scholar
  95. Shannon LV, Boyd AJ, Brundrit GB, Taunton-Clark J (1986) On the existence of an El Niño-type phenomenon in the Benguela system. J Mar Res 44:495–520. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shannon LV, Agenbag JJ, Buys MEL (1987) Large and mesoscale features of the Angola–Benguela front. S Afr J Mar Sci 5:11–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Shillington FA (1998) The Benguela upwelling system off southwestern Africa. In: Robinson AR, Brink KH (eds) The global Coastal Ocean, Regional studies and syntheses, The sea, vol 11. Wiley, New York, pp 583–604Google Scholar
  98. Skamarock WC, Klemp JB, Dudhia J, Gill DO, Barker DM, Wang W, Powers JG (2005) A description of the advanced research WRF version 2. NCAR/TN-408 + STR, 88 pp., [Available from NCAR Information Services, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.]Google Scholar
  99. Sterl A, Hazeleger W (2003) Coupled variability and air–sea interaction in the South Atlantic Ocean. Clim Dyn 21:559–571. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stramma L, Peterson RG (1990) The South Atlantic current. J Phys Oceanogr 20:846–859.<0846:TSAC>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sun X, Cook KH, Vizy EK (2017a) The South Atlantic subtropical high: climatology and interannual variability. J Clim 30:3279–3296. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sun X, Cook KH, Vizy EK (2017b) Land–atmosphere–ocean interactions in the southeastern South Atlantic: Interannual variability. Clim DynGoogle Scholar
  103. Tim N, Zorita E, Hünicke B (2015) Decadal variability and trends of the Benguela upwelling system as simulated in a high-resolution ocean simulation. Ocean Sci 11:483–502. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tokinaga H, Xie S-P (2011) Weakening of the equatorial Atlantic cold tongue over the past six decades. Nat Geosci 4:222–226. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vauclair F, du Penhoat Y (2001) Interannual variability of the upper layer of the tropical Atlantic Ocean from in situ data between 1979 and 1999. Clim Dyn 17:527–546. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Veitch JA, Florenchie P, Shillington FA (2006) Seasonal and interannual fluctuations of the Angola–Benguela frontal zone (ABFZ) using 4.5 km resolution satellite imagery from 1982 to 1989. Int J Remote Sens 27:987–998. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Venegas SA, Mysak LA, Straub DN (1997) Atmosphere–ocean coupled variability in the South Atlantic. J Clim.<2904:AOCVIT>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Verheye HM, Ekau W (2005) Maintenance mechanisms of plankton populations in frontal zones in the Benguela and Angola Current systems: a preface. Afr J Mar Sci 27:611–615. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vigaud N, Richard Y, Rouault M, Fauchereau N (2009) Moisture transport between the South Atlantic Ocean and southern Africa: relationships with summer rainfall and associated dynamics. Clim Dyn 32:113–123. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vizy EK, Cook KH (2012) Mid-21st century changes in extreme events over northern and tropical Africa. J Clim 25:5748–5767. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vizy EK, Cook KH (2014) Capturing the Atlantic cold tongue and coastal upwelling in an intermediate-level ocean model coupled to a regional climate model. Clim Dyn 42:345–366. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Vizy EK, Cook KH (2016) Understanding long-term (1982–2013) multi-decadal change in the equatorial and subtropical South Atlantic climate. Clim Dyn 46:2087–2113. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vizy EK, Cook KH, Crétat J, Neupane N (2013) Projections of a wetter Sahel in the 21st century from global and regional models. J Clim 26:4664–4687. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vizy EK, Cook KH, Chimphamba J, McCusker B (2015) Projected changes in Malawi’s growing season. Clim Dyn 45:1673–1698. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Walker ND (1990) Sea surface temperature-rainfall relationships and associated ocean-atmosphere coupling mechanisms in the southern African region. PhD Thesis, University of Cape Town, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  116. Wang C (2002) Atlantic climate variability and its associated atmospheric circulation cells. J Clim 15:1516–1536.<1516:ACVAIA>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wedepohl PM, Lutjeharms JRE, Meeuwis M (2000) Surface drift in the South-East Atlantic Ocean. S Afr J Mar Sci 22:71–79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Xie S-P, Carton JA (2004) Tropical Atlantic variability: patterns, mechanisms, and impacts. Earth’s climate: the ocean–atmosphere interaction. Geophys Monogr 147:121–142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Yamagata T, Iizuka S (1995) Simulation of the tropical thermal domes in the Atlantic: a seasonal cycle. J Phys Oceanogr 25:2129–2140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yuan C, Tozuka T, LuoJ-J Yamagata T (2014) Predictability of the subtropical dipole modes in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Clim Dyn 42:1291–1308. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zebiak S (1993) Air–sea interaction in the equatorial Atlantic region. J Clim 6:1567–1586.<1567:AIITEA>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zwiers FW, von Storch H (1995) Taking serial correlation into account in tests of the mean. J Clim 8:336–351.<0336:TSCIAI>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesJackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations