Advertisement

Climate Dynamics

, Volume 51, Issue 5–6, pp 2285–2299 | Cite as

Effects of surface friction and turbulent mixing on long-term changes in the near-surface wind speed over the Eastern China Plain from 1981 to 2010

  • Jian Wu
  • Jinlin Zha
  • Deming Zhao
  • Qidong Yang
Article

Abstract

A significant slowdown in the near-surface wind speed (SWS) due to combined effects of the driving and drag forces of the atmosphere has been demonstrated in different regions in the globe. The drag force includes two sources: the friction force between the underlying surface and the bottom of the atmosphere, which is the external friction force (EFF), and the vertical exchange of the horizontal momentum induced by turbulent mixing, which is the turbulent friction force (TFF). In this paper, we propose a diagnostic method to separate the effects of the EFF and the TFF on long-term changes in the SWS over the Eastern China Plain (ECP) region from 1981 to 2010. The results show that the TFF could have caused an increase of 0.5 ± 0.2 m s− 1 in the SWS over the ECP region in the past 30 years and the TFF showed an increasing influence of 0.17 m s− 1 decade− 1. In contrast, the EFF distinctly decreased the SWS by an average of − 1.1 ± 0.4 m s− 1 and presented a significant decreasing trend of − 0.36 m s− 1 decade− 1. The effect of EFF is the main inducer of the observed regional long-term decrease of the SWS, which is in accordance with the distinct land use and cover change (LUCC) occurring in the ECP region in recent decades. Furthermore, the effects of the EFF and TFF on the changes in the SWS are more significant in large cities than those in small cities. The TFF effect can accelerate the SWS, with means of 0.5 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.2 m s− 1 in large and small cities, respectively. The EFF effect can decelerate the SWS, with means of − 1.2 ± 0.4 and − 0.7 ± 0.4 m s− 1 in large and small cities, respectively.

Keywords

Near-surface wind speed External friction force Turbulent friction force Eastern China Plain 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors cordially thank the anonymous reviewers for their thorough comments and constructive suggestions, which improves the paper quality significantly. This study is sponsored by the Chinese Natural Science Foundation (41675149), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFA0600403), and the Yunnan Province Education Department Project (Grant No. 2017YJS106). The paper is also supported by the Program for Key Laboratory in University of Yunnan Province, the Chinese Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Climate Change, and Young Scholar of Distinction for Doctoral Candidate of Yunnan Province in 2016.

References

  1. Azorin-Molina C, Vicente-Serrano SM, McVicar TR, Jerez S, Sanchez-Lornzo A, Lopez-Moreno JI, Revuelto J, Trigo RM, Lopez-Bustins JA, Espirito-Santo F (2014) Homogenization and assessment of observed near-surface wind speed trends over Spain and Portugal, 1961–2011. J Clim 27:3692–3712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azorin-Molina C, Guijarro JA, McVicar TR, Vicente-Serrano SM, Chen DL, Jerez S, Espirito-Santo F (2016) Trends of daily peak wind gusts in Spain and Portugal, 1961–2014. J Geophys Res Atmos.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD024485 Google Scholar
  3. Bandyopadhyay A, Bhadra A, Raghuwanshi NS, Singh R (2009) Temporal trends in estimates of reference evapotranspiration over India. J Hydrol Eng 14(5):508–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berrisford P, Tobin I, Dunn RJH, Vautard R, McVicar TR (2015) Global climate; atmospheric circulation; surface winds land surface wind speed in “state of the climate in 2014”. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 95(7):S33–S34Google Scholar
  5. Bichet A, Wild M, Folini D, Schar C (2012) Causes for decadal variations of speed over land: sensitivity studies with a global climate model. Geophys Res Lett 39:L11701.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen L, Li D, Pryor SC (2013) Wind speed trends over China: quantifying the magnitude and assessing causality. Int J Climatol 33:2579–2590.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3613 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. China Meteorological Administration (CMA) (2003) Ground surface meteorological observation. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, p 157Google Scholar
  8. Clifton A, Lundquist JK (2012) Data clustering reveals climate impacts on local wind phenomena. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 51:1547–1557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cusack S (2013) A 101 year record of windstorms in the Netherlands. Clim Change 116:693–704.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-012-0527-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dadaser-Celik F, Cengiz E (2014) Wind speed trends over Turkey from 1975 to 2006. Int J Climatol 34:1913–1927.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc/3810 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dunn RJH, Azorin-Molina C, Mears CA, Berrisford P, McVicar TR (2016) Surface winds in “state of the climate in 2015”. Bull Am Meteor Soc 97(8):S38–S40Google Scholar
  12. Enloe J, Brien JJO, Smith S (2004) ENSO impacts on peak wind gusts in the United States. J Clim 17:1728–1737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Feng S, Hu Q, Qian WH (2004) Quality control of daily meteorological data in China, 1951–2000: a new dataset. Int J Climatol 24:853–870.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fu GB, Yu JJ, Zhang YC, Hu SS, Quyang RL, Liu WB (2011) Temporal variation of wind speed in China for 1961–2007. Theor Appl Climatol 104:313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fujibe F (2009) Relation between long-term temperature and wind speed trends at surface observation stations in Japan. SOLA 5:081–084.  https://doi.org/10.2151/sola.2009-021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garcia-Bustamante E, Gonzalez-Rouco JF, Navarro J, Xoplaki E, Jimenez PA, Montavez JP (2012) North Atlantic atmospheric circulation and surface wind in the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula: uncertainty and long term downscaled variability. Clim Dyn 38:141–160.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0969-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Greene JS, Chatelain M, Morrissey M, Stadler S (2012) Estimated changes in wind speed and wind power density over the western High Plains, 1971–2000. Theor Appl Climatol 109:507–518.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-012-0596-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guo H, Xu M, Hu Q (2011) Changes in near-surface wind speed in China: 1969–2005. Int J Climatol 31:349–358.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2091 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. He YP, Monahan AH, Jones CG, Dai A, Biner S, Caya D, Winger K (2010) Probability distributions of land surface wind speeds over North America. J Geophys Res Atmos 115:D04103.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010708 Google Scholar
  20. Jerez S, Trigo RM, Vicente-Serrano SM, Pozo-Vazquez D, Lorente-Plazas R, Lorenzo-Lacruz J, Santos-Alamillos F, Montavez JP (2013) The impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the renewable energy resources in southwestern Europe. J Appl Meteorol Climatol 52:2204–2225.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-12-0257.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jiang Y, Luo Y, Zhao ZC, Tao SW (2010) Changes in wind speed over China during 1956–2004. Theor Appl Climatol 99:421–430.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-009-0152-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kim JC, Paik K (2015) Recent recovery of surface wind speed after decadal decrease: a focus on South Korea. Clim Dyn 45:1699–1712.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2546-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Klink K (1999a) Climatological mean and inter-annual variance of United States surface wind speed, direction and velocity. Int J Climatol 19:471–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Klink K (1999b) Trends in mean monthly maximum and minimum surface wind speeds in the coterminous United States, 1961 to 1990. Climate Res 13:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klink K (2007) Atmospheric circulation effects on wind speed variability at turbine height. J Appl Meteorol 46(4):445–456.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2466.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lin CG, Yang K, Qin J, Hu Y (2013) Observation coherent trends of surface and upper-air wind speed over China since 1960. J Clim 26:2891–2903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu XN (2000) The homogeity test on mean annual wind speed over China. J Appl Meteor Sci 11(1):28–34 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. Liu XM, Luo YZ, Zhang D, Zhang MH, Liu CM (2011) Recent changes in pan-evaporation dynamics in China. Geophys Res Lett 38:L13404.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL047929 Google Scholar
  29. Liu X, Zhang XJ, Tang Q, Zhang XZ (2014) Effect of surface wind speed decline on modeled hydrological conditions in China. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 18:2803–2813.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-18-2803-2014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Malloy JW, Krahenbuhl DS, Bush CE, Balling RC, Santoro MM, White JR, Elder RC, Pace MB, Cerveny RS (2015) A surface wind extremes (“Wind Lulls” and “Wind Blows”) climatology for Central North America and Adjoining Oceans (1979–2012). J Appl Meteorol Climatol 54:643–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McVicar TR, Van Niel TG, Li LT, Roderick ML, Rayner DP, Ricciardulli L, Donohue R (2008) Wind speed climatology and trends for Australia, 1975–2006: capturing the stilling phenomenon and comparison with near-surface reanalysis output. Geophys Res Lett 35:L20403.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL035627 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McVicar TR, Roderick ML, Donohue RJ, Li LT, Van Niel TG, Thomas A, Grieser J, Jhajharia D, Himri Y, Mahowald NM, Mescherskaya AV, Kruger AC, Rehman S, Dinpashoh Y (2012) Global review and synthesis of trends in observed terrestrial near-surface wind speeds: implications for evaporation. J Hydrol 416(417):182–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.10.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McVicar TR, Vautard R, Thepaut JN, Berrisford P, Dunn RJH (2013) Global climate; atmospheric circulation; surface winds Land surface winds in “state of the climate in 2011”. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 94(8):S27–S29Google Scholar
  34. Najac J, Boe J, Terray L (2009) A multi-model ensemble approach for assessment of climate change impact on surface winds in France. Clim Dyn 32:615–634.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-008-0440-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Najac J, Lac C, Terray L (2011) Impact of climate change on surface winds in France using a statistical-dynamical downscaling method with meso-scale modelling. Int J Climatol 31:415–430.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2075 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pryor SC, Ledolter J (2010) Addendum to “Wind speeds trends over the contiguous United States”. J Geophys Res 115:D10103.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013281 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pryor SC, Schoof JT, Barthelmie RJ (2005) Climate change impacts on wind speeds and wind energy density in northern Europe: empirical downscaling of multiple AOGCMs. Clim Res 29:183–198.  https://doi.org/10.3354/cr029183 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pryor SC, Barthelmie RJ, Riley ES (2007) Historical evolution of wind climates in the USA. J Phys.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/75/1/102065 Google Scholar
  39. Roderick ML, Rotstayn LD, Farquhar GD, Hobbins MT (2007) On the attribution of changing pan evaporation. Geophys Res Lett 34(34):251–270.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031166 Google Scholar
  40. Sušelj K, Sood A, Heinemann D (2010) North sea near-surface wind climate and its relation to the large-scale circulation patterns. Theor Appl Climatol 99:403–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tobin I, Berrisford P, Dunn RJH, Vautard R, McVicar TR (2014) Global climate; atmospheric circulation; surface winds land surface wind speed in “state of the climate in 2013”. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 95(7):S28–S29Google Scholar
  42. Tuller SE (2004) Measured wind speed trends on the west coast of Canada. Int J Climatol 24:1359–1374.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vautard R, Cattiaux JL, Yiou P, Thepaut JN, Ciais P (2010) Northern Hemisphere atmospheric stilling partly attributed to an increase in surface roughness. Nat Geosci 3(11):756–761.  https://doi.org/10.1038/NGEO979 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vautard R, McVicar TR, Thepaut JN, Roderic ML (2012) Global climate; atmospheric circulation; surface winds land surface winds and atmospheric evaporative demand in “state of the climate in 2011”. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 93(7):S6–S38Google Scholar
  45. Wan H, Wang XL, Swail VR (2010) Homogenization and trend analysis of Canadian near-surface wind speeds. J Clim 23(5):1209–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wu J, Fu CB, Zhang LY, Tang JP (2012) Trends of visibility on sunny days in China in the recent 50 years. Atmos Environ 55:339–346.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.03.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wu J, Zha JL, Zhao DM (2016) Estimating the impact of the changes in land use and cover on the surface wind speed over the East China plain during the period 1980–2011. Clim Dyn 46:847–863.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2616-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wu J, Zha JL, Zhao DM (2017a) Evaluating the effects of land use and cover change on the decrease of surface wind speed over China in recent 30 years using a statistical downscaling method. Clim Dyn 48:131–149.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3065-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wu J, Zha JL, Zhao DM, Yang QD (2017b) Changes in terrestrial near-surface wind speed and their possible causes: an overview. Clim Dyn.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-017-3997-y Google Scholar
  50. Xu M, Chang CP, Fu CB, Qi Y, Robock A, Robinson D, Zhang HM (2006) Steady decline of East Asian monsoon winds, 1969–2000: evidence from direct ground measurements of wind speed. J Geophys Res Atmos 111:D24111.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007337 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yang K, Ye BS, Zhou DG, Wu BY, Foken T, Qin J, Zhou ZY (2011) Response of hydrological cycle to recent climate changes in the Tibetan Plateau. Clim Change 109:517–534.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0099-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. You QL, Kang SC, Flugel WA, Pepin N, Yan YP, Huang J (2010) Decreasing wind speed and weakening latitudinal surface pressure gradients in the Tibetan Plateau. Climate Res 42:57–64.  https://doi.org/10.3354/cr00864 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zha JL, Wu J, Zhao DM (2016) Changes of probabilities in different wind grades induced by land use and cover change in Eastern China Plain during 1980–2011. Atmos Sci Lett 17:264–269.  https://doi.org/10.1002/asl.653 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zha JL, Wu J, Zhao DM (2017a) Effects of land use and cover change on the near-surface wind speed over China in the last 30 years. Prog Phys Geogr.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0309133316663097 Google Scholar
  55. Zha JL, Wu J, Zhao DM, Yang QD (2017b) Changes of the probabilities in different ranges of near-surface wind speed in China during the period for 1970–2011. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 169:156–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang N, Gao ZQ, Wang XM, Chen Y (2010) Modeling the impact of urbanization on the local and regional climate in Yangtze River Delta, China. Theor Appl Climatol 102:331–342.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-010-0263-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhang N, Wang XM, Chen Y, Dai W, Wang XY (2016) Numerical simulations on influence of urban land cover expansion and anthropogenic heat release on urban meteorological environment in Pearl River Delta. Theor Appl Climatol 126:469–479.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-015-1601-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric ScienceYunnan UniversityKunmingChina
  2. 2.CAS Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment for Temperate East AsiaInstitute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations