Spatiotemporal variations of annual shallow soil temperature on the Tibetan Plateau during 1983–2013
- 371 Downloads
Soil temperature changes in cold regions can have great impacts on the land surface energy and water balance, and hence changes in weather and climate, surface and subsurface hydrology and ecosystem. We investigate the spatiotemporal variations of annual soil temperature at depths of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 40 cm during 1983–2013 using observations at 85 stations on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Our results show that the climatological soil temperatures exhibit a similar spatial pattern among different depths and they are generally higher than surface air temperature at the individual stations. Spatially averaged soil temperature show that the TP has experienced significant warming trends at all six depths during 1983–2013, and the soil at 0-cm depth has the fastest warming rate among all the six layers and the surface air temperature. The first leading mode of joint empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis exhibits a spatially prevailing warming pattern across the six depths. This plateau-wide soil warming correlates very well with surface air temperature and sea surface temperature in response to increasing radiative forcing caused by greenhouse gases. The joint EOF2 displays a southeastern-northwestern dipole pattern on the TP in the interannual-decadal variability of soil temperature at all layers, which appears to be related to the warm season precipitation and anomalous atmospheric circulations. The spatial difference of soil warming rates across stations on the TP is associated primarily with the spatial distribution of precipitation (mainly rainfall), with vegetation, snowfall and elevation playing a rather limited role.
KeywordsSoil temperature Tibetan Plateau Climate change Joint empirical orthogonal function (joint EOF)
This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41571067) and the International Partnership Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant 131C11KYSB20160061), and National Basic Research Program (Grant 2013CB956004).
- Hanks RJ (2012) Applied soil physics: soil water and temperature applications, vol 8. Springer, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
- Hao G, Zhuang Q, Pan J, Jin Z, Zhu X, Liu S (2014) Soil thermal dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States from 1948 to 2008: an analysis with a process-based soil physical model and AmeriFlux data. Clim Change 126:135–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1196-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hillel D (2013) Fundamentals of soil physics. Academic press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
- Lal R, Shukla MK (2004) Principles of soil physics. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NYGoogle Scholar
- Lorenz EN (1956) Empirical orthogonal functions and statistical weather prediction. Science report 1, Statistical forecasting project, Department of Meteorology, MIT (NTIS AD 110268), p. 49Google Scholar
- Ruiz-Barradas A, Kalnay E, Pena M, BozorgMagham AE, Motesharrei S (2017) Finding the driver of local ocean-atmosphere coupling in reanalyses and CMIP5 climate models. Clim Dyn 48:2153–2172. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-016-3197-1
- Solomon S (2007) IPCC climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, NYGoogle Scholar
- Tesař M, Šír M, Krejča M, Váchal J (2008) Influence of vegetation cover on air and soil temperatures in the Šumava Mts. (Czech Republic). IOP conference series: earth and environmental science, 4, 012029. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1307/4/1/012029
- You Q, Kang S, Pepin N, Flügel W-A, Yan Y, Behrawan H, Huang J (2010) Relationship between temperature trend magnitude, elevation and mean temperature in the Tibetan Plateau from homogenized surface stations and reanalysis data. Glob Planet Change 71:124–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.01.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhan W, Zhou J, Ju W, Li M, Sandholt I, Voogt J, Yu C (2014) Remotely sensed soil temperatures beneath snow-free skin-surface using thermal observations from tandem polar-orbiting satellites: an analytical three-time-scale model. Remote Sens Environ 143:1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2013.12.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar