Advertisement

Climate Dynamics

, Volume 51, Issue 1–2, pp 119–141 | Cite as

Inter comparison of Tropical Indian Ocean features in different ocean reanalysis products

  • Ananya Karmakar
  • Anant Parekh
  • J. S. Chowdary
  • C. Gnanaseelan
Article

Abstract

This study makes an inter comparison of ocean state of the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in different ocean reanalyses such as global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS), ensemble coupled data assimilation (ECDA), ocean reanalysis system 4 (ORAS4) and simple ocean data assimilation (SODA) with reference to the in-situ buoy observations, satellite observed sea surface temperature (SST), EN4 analysis and ocean surface current analysis real time (OSCAR). Analysis of mean state of SST and sea surface salinity (SSS) reveals that ORAS4 is better comparable with satellite observations as well as EN4 analysis, and is followed by SODA, ECDA and GODAS. The surface circulation in ORAS4 is closer to OSCAR compared to the other reanalyses. However mixed layer depth (MLD) is better simulated by SODA, followed by ECDA, ORAS4 and GODAS. Seasonal evolution of error indicates that the highest deviation in SST and MLD over the TIO exists during spring and summer in GODAS. Statistical analysis with concurrent data of EN4 for the period of 1980–2010 supports that the difference and standard deviation (variability strength) ratio for SSS and MLD is mostly greater than one. In general the strength of variability is overestimated by all the reanalyses. Further comparison with in-situ buoy observations supports that MLD errors over the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) and the Bay of Bengal are higher than with EN4 analysis. Overall ORAS4 displays higher correlation and lower error among all reanalyses with respect to both EN4 analysis and buoy observations. Major issues in the reanalyses are the underestimation of upper ocean stability in the TIO, underestimation of surface current in the EIO, overestimation of vertical shear of current and improper variability in different oceanic variables. To improve the skill of reanalyses over the TIO, salinity vertical structure and upper ocean circulation need to be better represented in reanalyses.

Keywords

Ocean reanalyses Indian Ocean Error analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the Director of ESSO-IITM for support. The valuable comments from two anonymous reviewers helped us to improve the manuscript considerably. Figures are prepared using Ferret.

References

  1. Adler RF, Huffman GJ, Chang A, Ferraro R, Xie PP, Janowiak J, Rudolf B, Schneider U, Curtis S, Bolvin D, Gruber A, Susskind J, Arkin P, Nelkin E (2003) The version-2 global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present). J of Hydrometeorol 4(6):1147–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal N, Sharma R, Parekh A, Basu S, Sarkar A, Agarwal VK (2012) Argo observations of barrier layer in the tropical Indian Ocean. Adv Space Res 50:642–654. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2012.05.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antonov JI, Locarnini RA, Boyer TP, Mishonov AV, Garcia HE (2006) World ocean atlas 2005, vol 2. In: Levitus S (ed) Salinity, NOAA atlas NESDIS, vol 62. NOAA, Silver SpringGoogle Scholar
  4. Balmaseda MA, Mogensen K, Weaver AT (2013) Evaluation of the ECMWF oceanreanalyses system ORAS4. Q J R Meteorol Soc 139:1132–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balmaseda MA, Hernandez F, Storto A, Palmer MD, Alves O, Shi L, Smith GC, Toyoda T, Valdivieso M, Barnier B, Behringer D, Boyer T, Chang YS, Chepurin GA, Ferry N, Forget G, Fujii Y, Good S, Guinehut S, Haines K, Ishikawa Y, Keeley S, Köhl A, Lee T, Martin M, Masina S, Masuda S, Meyssignac B, Mogensen K, Parent L, Peterson KA, Tang YM, Yin Y, Vernieres G, Wang X, Waters J, Wedd R, Wang O, Xue Y, Chevallier M, Lemieux JF, Dupont F, Kuragano T, Kamachi M, Awaji T, Caltabiano A, Wilmer-Becker K, Gaillard F (2015) The ocean reanalyses intercomparison project (ORA-IP). J Oper Oceanogr sup 1, s80–s97. doi: 10.1080/1755876X.2015.1022329 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Baranova OK, Garcia HE, Johnson DR, Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Seidov D, Smolyar IV, Zweng MM (2009) Chap. 1: introduction, NOAA atlas NESDIS 66. In: Levitus S (ed) World ocean database 2009, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Carton JA, Giese BS (2008) A reanalyses of ocean climate using simple ocean data assimilation (SODA). Mon Weather Rev 136:2999–3017. doi: 10.1175/2007MWR1978.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chakravorty S, Chowdary JS, Gnanaseelan C (2014) Epochal changes in the seasonal evolution of tropical Indian Ocean warming associated with El Niño. Clim Dyn 42:805–822. doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-1666-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chakravorty S, Gnanaseelan C, Pillai PA (2016) Combined influence of remote and local SST forcing on Indian summer monsoon rainfall variability. Clim Dyn. doi: 10.1007/s00382-016-2999-5 Google Scholar
  10. Chattopadhyay R, Rao SA, Sabeerali CT, George G, Rao DN, Dhakate A, Salunke K (2015) Large-scale teleconnection pattern of Indian summer monsoon as revealed by CFSv2 retrospective seasonal forecast runs. Int J Climatol. doi: 10.1002/joc.4556 Google Scholar
  11. Chowdary JS, Parekh Anant, Srinivas G, Gnanaseelan C, Fousiya TS, RashmiKhandekar, Roxy MK (2016) Processes associated with the tropical Indian Ocean subsurface temperature bias in a coupled model. J Phys Oceanogr. doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-15-0245.1 Google Scholar
  12. Courtier P, Thépaut J-N, Hollingsworth A (1994) A strategy for operational implementation of 4D-Var, using an incremental approach. Q J R Meteorol Soc 120:1367–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Delworth TL, Rosati A, Stouffer RJ et al (2006) GFDL’s CM2 global coupled climate models. part I: formulation and simulation characteristics. J Clim 19:643–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Derber J, Rosati A (1989) A global oceanic data assimilation system. J Phys Oceanogr 19:1333–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fousiya TS, Parekh A, Gnanaseelan C. 2015. Interannual variability of upper ocean stratification in Bay of Bengal: observational and modeling aspects. Theor Appl Climatol. doi: 10.1007/s00704-015-1574-z Google Scholar
  16. Gadgil S, Joseph PV, Joshi NV (1984) Ocean atmosphere coupling over monsoon regions. Nature 312:141–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gandin LS (1965) Objective analysis of meteorological fields. Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, p 242Google Scholar
  18. Gnanaseelan C, Deshpande A, McPhaden MJ (2012) Impact of Indian Ocean dipole and El Niño/Southern oscillation forcing on the Wyrtki jets. J Geophys Res 117:C08005.  10.1029/2012JC007918 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Good SA, Martin MJ, Rayner NA (2013) EN4: quality controlled ocean temperature and salinity profiles and monthly objective analyses with uncertainty estimates. J Geophys Res Oceans 118:6704–6716. doi: 10.1002/2013JC009067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gouretski V, Reseghetti F (2010) On depth and temperature biases in bathythermograph data: development of a new correction scheme based on analysis of a global ocean database. Deep Sea Res I 57:812–833. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2010.03.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hosoda S, Ohira T, Sato K, Suga T (2010) Improved description of global mixed-layer depth using argo profiling floats. J Oceanogr 66(6):773– 787. doi: 10.1007/s10872-010-0063-3 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huang B, Xue Y, Zhang D, Kumar A, McPhaden MJ (2010) The NCEP GODAS ocean analysis of the tropical Pacific mixed layer heat budget on seasonal to interannual time scales. J Clim 23:4901–4925. doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3373.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ingleby B, Huddleston M (2007) Quality control of ocean temperature and salinity profiles—historical and real-time data. J Mar Syst 65:158–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kirtler R, Collins W, Deaven D, Gandin L, Iredell M, Saha S, White G, Woollen J, Zhu Y, Chelliah M, Ebisuzaki W, Higgins W, Janowiak J, Mo KC, Ropelewski C, Wang J, Leetma A, Reynolds R, Jenne R, Joseph D (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77:437–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kanamitsu M, Ebisuzaki W, Woollen J, Yang SK, Hnilo JJ, Fiorino M, Potter GL (2002) The NCEP-DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull Am Meteorol Soc 83:1631–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu L, Xie S-P, Zheng X-T, Li T, Du Y, Huang G, Yu WD (2014) Indian Ocean variability in the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble: the zonal dipole mode. Clim Dyn 43:1715–1730. doi: 10.1007/s00382-013-2000-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Garcia HE, 2006. World ocean atlas 2005, vol 1: temperature. In: Levitus S (ed) NOAA atlas NESDIS 61. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  28. Madec G, 2008. NEMO ocean general circulation model reference manuel. Internal report. LOCEAN/IPSL, ParisGoogle Scholar
  29. McPhaden MJ et al (2009) The research moored array for African–Asian–Australian monsoon analysis and prediction. Bull Am Meteorol Soc RAMA:459–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mogensen K, Balmaseda MA, Weaver A (2012) The NEMOVAR ocean data assimilation system as implemented in the ECMWF ocean analysis for system 4. ECMWF Tech Memo, Reading (668) Google Scholar
  31. Nyadjro E, McPhaden MJ (2014) Variability of zonal currents in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean on seasonal to interannual time scales. J Geophys Res Oceans 119:7969–7986. doi: 10.1002/2014JC010380 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Palmer MD, Roberts CD, Balmaseda M, Chang YS, Chepurin G, Ferry N, Fujii Y, Good SA, Guinehut S, Haines K, Hernandez F, Köhl A, Lee T, Martin MJ, Masina S, Masuda S, Peterson KA, Storto A, Toyoda T, Valdivieso M, Vernieres G, Wang O, Xue Y (2015) Ocean heat content variability and change in an ensemble of ocean reanalyses. Clim Dyn. doi: 10.1007/s00382-015-2801-0 Google Scholar
  33. Rayner NA, Parker DE, Horton EB, Folland CK, Alexander LV, Rowell DP, Kent EC, Kaplan A (2003) Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J Geophys Res 108(D14):4407. doi: 10.1029/2002JD002670 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Reynolds RW, Rayner NA, Smith TM, Stokes DC, Wang W (2002) An improved in situ and satellite sst analysis for climate. J Clim 15:1609–1625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Saha S, Nadiga S, Thiaw C, Wang J, Wang W, Zhang Q, van den Dool HM, Pan H-L, Moorthi S, Behringer D, Stokes D, Peña M, Lord S, White G, Ebisuzaki W, Peng P, Xie P (2006) The NCEP climate forecast system. J Clim 19:3483–3517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Saha S et al (2014) The NCEP climate forecast system version 2. J Clim 27:2185–2208. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00823.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Saji NH, Yamagata T (2003a) Possible impacts of Indian Ocean dipole mode events on global climate. Clim Res 25:51–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Saji NH, Yamagata T (2003b) Structure of SST and surface wind variability during Indian Ocean dipole mode years: COADS observations. J Clim 16:2735–2751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Saji NH, Goswami BN, Vinayachandran PN, Yamagata T (1999) A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature 401:360–363Google Scholar
  40. Sayantani O, Gnanaseelan C (2015) Tropical Indian Ocean subsurface temperature variability and the forcing mechanisms. Clim Dyn 44:2447–2462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schott F, McCreary JP (2001) The monsoon circulation of the Indian Ocean. Prog Oceanogr 51:1–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schott F, Dengler M, Schoenefeldt R (2002) The shallow thermohaline circulation of the Indian Ocean. Prog Oceanogr 53:57–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schott FA, Xie S-P, McCreary JP Jr (2009) Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability. Rev Geophys 47:RG1002. doi: 10.1029/2007RG000245 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Seetaramayya P, Master A (1984) Observed air–sea interface conditions and a monsoon depression during MONEX-79. Meteorol Atmos Phys 33:61–67Google Scholar
  45. Sengupta D, Goswami BN, Senan R (2001) Coherent intraseasonal oscillations of ocean and atmosphere during the Asian summer monsoon. Geophys Res Lett 28:4127–4130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shenoi SSC, Shankar D, Shetye SR (2002) Differences in heat budgets of the near-surface Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal: implications for the summer monsoon. J Geophys Res 107:3052. doi: 10.1029/2000JC000679 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shetye SR, Gouveia AD, Shenoi SSC, Vinayachandran PN, Sundar D, Michael GS, Nampoothiri G (1996) Hydrography and circulation in the western Bay of Bengal during the northeast monsoon. J Geophys Res 101:14011–14025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shi L, Alves O, Wedd R, Balmaseda MA, Chang Y, Chepurin G, Ferry N, Fujii Y, Gaillard F, Good SA, Guinehut S, Haines K, Hernandez F, Lee T, Palmer M, Peterson KA, Masuda S, Storto A, Toyoda T, Valdivieso M, Vernieres G, Wang X, Yin Y (2015) Anassessment of upper ocean salinity content from the ocean reanalyses inter-comparison project (ORA-IP). Clim Dyn. doi: 10.1007/s00382-015-2868-7 Google Scholar
  49. Shukla J (1975) Effect of arabian sea-surface temperature anomaly on Indian summer monsoon: a numerical experiment with the GFDL model. J Atmos Sci 32:503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sikhakolli R, Rashmi S, Basu S, Gohil BS, Sarkar A, Prasad KVSR (2013) Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical Indian Ocean using in-situ data. J Earth Syst Sci 122(1):187–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith RD, Dukowicz JK, Malone RC (1992) Parallel ocean general circulation modeling. Physica D 60:38–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Taylor KE, Stouffer RJ, Meehl GA (2012) An overview of CMIP5 and the experiment design. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 93(4):485–498. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00094.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Toyoda T, Fujii Y, Kuragano T, Kamachi M, Ishikawa Y, Masuda S, Sato K, Awaji T, Hernandez F, Ferry N, Guinehut S, Martin MJ, Peterson KA, Good SA, Valdivieso M, Haines K, Storto A, Masina S, Khl A, Zuo Hao, Balmaseda M, Yin Y, Shi L, Alves O, Smith G, Chang Y, Vernieres G, Wang X, Forget G, Heimbach P, Wang O, Fukumori I, Lee T (2015) Intercomparison and validation of the mixed layer depth fields of global ocean syntheses. Clim Dyn. doi: 10.1007/s00382-015-2637-7 Google Scholar
  54. Webster PJ, Moore AM, Loschnigg JP, Leben RR (1999) Coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997–98. Nature 401:356–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Weller RA, Farrar JT, Buckley J, Mathew S, Venkatesan R, SreeLekha J, Chaudhuri D, Suresh Kumar N, Praveen Kumar B (2016) Air–sea interaction in the Bay of Bengal. Oceanography 29(2):28–37. doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2016.36 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wyrtki K (1973) An equatorial jet in the Indian Ocean. Science 181:262–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Xie SP, Hu K, Hafner J, Tokinaga H, Du Y, Huang G, Sampe T (2009) Indian Ocean capacitor effect on Indo–western Pacific Climate during the summer following El Niño. J Clim 22:730–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang S, Rosati A (2010) An inflated ensemble filter for ocean data assimilation with a biased coupled GCM. Mon Weather Rev 138:3905–3931. doi: 10.1175/2010MWR3326.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ananya Karmakar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anant Parekh
    • 1
  • J. S. Chowdary
    • 1
  • C. Gnanaseelan
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM)PuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of Atmospheric and Space SciencesSavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations