Climate Dynamics

, Volume 51, Issue 11–12, pp 4095–4107 | Cite as

Influence of the May Southern annular mode on the South China Sea summer monsoon

  • Ting Liu
  • Jianping LiEmail author
  • YanJie LiEmail author
  • Sen Zhao
  • Fei Zheng
  • Jiayu Zheng
  • Zhixiong Yao


The possible impact of the May Southern Hemisphere (SH) annular mode (SAM) on the following South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon (SCSSM) is examined. A close inverse relationship between the two is revealed in the observations. The simultaneous South Pacific dipole (SPD), a dipole-like sea surface temperature anomaly pattern in the South Pacific, acts as the “oceanic bridge” to preserve the May SAM signal and prolong it into June–September. Observational evidence and numerical simulations both demonstrate that the SPD communicates its large thermal inertia signal to the atmosphere, regulating the Southern Pacific Subtropical Jet (SPSJ) variability over eastern Australia. Corresponding to the adjustment of circulation associated with the SPSJ is a prominent tripolar cross-Pacific teleconnection pattern stretching from the SH middle–high latitudes into the NH East Asia coastal region, referred to as the South–North Pacific (SNP) teleconnection pattern. Wave ray tracing analysis manifests that the SNP acts as the “atmospheric bridge” to propagate the related wave energy across the equator and into the Maritime Continent and SCS monsoon region, modulating the vertical motion and middle–lower tropospheric flows, and favoring the out-of-phase variation of the SCSSM. Therefore, the “coupled oceanic-atmospheric bridge” process and the related Rossby wave energy transmission are possible mechanisms for the significant influence of the May SAM on the variability of the following SCSSM. Therefore, the May SAM provides a fresh insight into the prediction of the SCSSM from the perspective of the SH high latitudes.


Southern annular mode South China Sea summer monsoon Coupled oceanic-atmospheric bridge 



This study was jointly supported by the 973 Program (2013CB430200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41575060, 41690124 and 41690120). The authors are grateful to the valuable comments and suggestions of the two anonymous reviewers, which have helped us to improve the paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment DynamicsSecond Institute of OceanographyHangzhouChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology and College of Global Change and Earth System ScienceBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Laboratory for Regional Oceanography and Numerical ModelingQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.School of Ocean and Earth Science and TechnologyUniversity of Hawaii at MānoaHonoluluUSA
  6. 6.Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, and College of Atmospheric ScienceNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina

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