Climate Dynamics

, Volume 49, Issue 11–12, pp 3787–3798 | Cite as

Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America

Article

Abstract

In this study, the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and its atmospheric teleconnection over the western North Pacific (WNP) toward the North Pacific/North America during boreal winter are investigated. First, we defined the WNP mode as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies over the WNP region (100–165°E, 0–35°N), of which the principle component time-series are significantly correlated with several well-known climate modes such as the warm pool mode which is the second EOF mode of the tropical to North Pacific SST anomalies, North Pacific oscillation (NPO), North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO), and central Pacific (CP)-El Niño at 95% confidence level, but not correlated with the eastern Pacific (EP)-El Niño. The warm phase of the WNP mode (sea surface warming) is initiated by anomalous southerly winds through reduction of wind speed with the background of northerly mean winds over the WNP during boreal winter, i.e., reduced evaporative cooling. Meanwhile, the atmospheric response to the SST warming pattern and its diabatic heating further enhance the southerly wind anomaly, referred to the wind–evaporation–SST (WES) feedback. Thus, the WNP mode is developed and maintained through winter until spring, when the northerly mean wind disappears. Furthermore, it is also known that anomalous upper-level divergence associated with WNP mode leads to the NPO-like structure over the North Pacific and the east–west pressure contrast pattern over the North America through Rossby wave propagation, impacting the climate over the North Pacific and North America.

Keywords

Western North Pacific (WNP) mode North Pacific oscillation (NPO) Wind–evaporation–SST (WES) feedback 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-1043.

References

  1. Ashok K, Behera SK, Rao SA et al (2007) El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection. J Geophys Res Oceans 112:C11007. doi:10.1029/2006JC003798 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bond N, Overland J, Spillane M et al (2003) Recent shifts in the state of the North Pacific. Geophys Res Lett 30:2183. doi:10.1029/2003GL018597 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ceballos LI, Di Lorenzo E, Hoyos CD et al (2009) North Pacific gyre oscillation synchronizes climate fluctuations in the eastern and western boundary systems. J Clim 22:5163–5174. doi:10.1175/2009JCLI2848.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chhak KC, Di Lorenzo E, Schneider N et al (2009) Forcing of low-frequency ocean variability in the Northeast Pacific. J Clim 22:1255–1276. doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2639.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chikamoto Y, Timmermann A, Luo J-J et al (2015) Skilful multi-year predictions of tropical trans-basin climate variability. Nat Commun 6:6869. doi:10.1038/ncomms7869 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Di Lorenzo E, Schneider N, Cobb K et al (2008) North Pacific Gyre Oscillation links ocean climate and ecosystem change. Geophys Res Lett 35:L08607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Di Lorenzo E, Cobb KM, Furtado JC et al (2010) Central Pacific El Niño and decadal climate change in the North Pacific Ocean. Nature Geosci 3:762–765. doi:10.1038/ngeo984 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fu R, Del Genio AD, Rossow WB (1994) Influence of ocean surface conditions on atmospheric vertical thermodynamic structure and deep convection. J Clim 7:1092–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gill AE (1980) Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulation. Q J R Meteorol Soc 106:447–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hartmann DL (2015) Pacific sea surface temperature and the winter of 2014. Geophys Res Lett 42:1894–1902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Horel, JD, Wallace JM (1981) Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon Wea Rev 109: 813–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hoskins BJ, Ambrizzi T (1993) Rossby wave propagation on a realistic longitudinally varying flow. J Atmos Sci 50:1661–1671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoskins BJ, Karoly DJ (1981) The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J Atmos Sci 38:1179–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hu D, Cui M (1991) The western boundary current of the Pacific and its role in the climate. Chin J Oceanol Limn 9:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huffman GJ, Adler RF, Bolvin DT et al (2009) Improving the global precipitation record: GPCP version 2.1. Geophys Res Lett 36:L17808. doi:10.1029/2009GL040000 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jo H-S, Yeh S-W, Kirtman BP (2014) Role of the western tropical Pacific in the North Pacific regime shift in the winter of 1998/1999. J Geophys Res. Oceans 119:6161–6170Google Scholar
  17. Kao H-Y, Yu J-Y (2009) Contrasting eastern-Pacific and central-Pacific types of ENSO. J Clim 22:615–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kara AB, Rochford PA, Hurlburt HE (2003) Mixed layer depth variability over the global ocean. J Geophys Res. Oceans 108:3079. doi:10.1029/2000JC000736 C3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kistler R, Collins W, Saha S et al (2001) The NCEP–NCAR 50–year reanalysis: monthly means CD–ROM and documentation. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 82:247–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kug J-S, Jin F-F, An S-I (2009) Two types of El Niño events: cold tongue El Niño and warm pool El Niño. J Clim 22:1499–1515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Larkin NK, Harrison D (2005) On the definition of El Niño and associated seasonal average US weather anomalies. Geophys Res Lett 32: L13705. 1–L13705. 4Google Scholar
  22. Lee S-K, Park W, Baringer MO et al (2015) Pacific origin of the abrupt increase in Indian Ocean heat content during the warming hiatus. Nature Geosci 8:445–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Linkin ME, Nigam S (2008) The North Pacific oscillation–West Pacific teleconnection pattern: mature-phase structure and winter impacts. J Clim 21:1979–1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mantua NJ, Hare SR, Zhang Y et al (1997) A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 78:1069–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Matsuno T (1966) Quasi-geostrophic motions in the equatorial area. J Meteor Soc Japan 44:25–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Park J-H, An S-I (2014) The impact of tropical western Pacific convection on the North Pacific atmospheric circulation during the boreal winter. Clim Dyn 43:2227–2238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Park J-Y, Yeh S-W, Kug J-S (2012) Revisited relationship between tropical and North Pacific sea surface temperature variations. Geophys Res Lett 39:L02703. doi:10.1029/2011GL050005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Reynolds RW, Smith TM, Liu C et al (2007) Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J Clim 20:5473–5496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rogers JC (1981) The North Pacific Oscillation. J Clim 1:39–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sardeshmukh PD, Hoskins BJ (1988) The generation of global rotational flow by steady idealized tropical divergence. J Atmos Sci 45:1228–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Takaya K, Nakamura H (2001) A formulation of a phase-independent wave-activity flux for stationary and migratory quasigeostrophic eddies on a zonally varying basic flow. J Atmos Sci 58:608–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Toole JM, Millard RC, Wang Z et al (1990) Observations of the Pacific North equatorial current bifurcation at the Philippine coast. J Phys Oceano 20:307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ueki I (2011) Evidence of wind-evaporation-sea surface temperature (WES) feedback in the western Pacific warm pool during the mature phase of the 1997-98 El Niño. Geophys Res Lett 38:L11603. doi:10.1029/2011GL047179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wallace JM, Gutzler DS (1981) Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mont Weather Rev 109:784–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang B, Wu R, Fu X (2000) Pacific-East Asian teleconnection: how does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J Clim 13:1517–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Watanabe M, Kimoto M (2000) Atmosphere-ocean thermal coupling in the North Atlantic: a positive feedback. Q J R Meteorol Soc 126:3343–3369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xie SP, Philander SGH (1994) A coupled ocean-atmosphere model of relevance to the ITCZ in the eastern Pacific. Tellus A 46:340–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yu JY, Kao HY (2007) Decadal changes of ENSO persistence barrier in SST and ocean heat content indices: 1958–2001. J Geophys Res Atmos 112:13106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang C (1993) Large-scale variability of atmospheric deep convection in relation to seasurface temperature in the tropics. J Clim 6:1898–1913CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringPohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH)PohangSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Atmospheric SciencesYonsei UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations