Resolution dependence of the simulated precipitation and diurnal cycle over the Maritime Continent
- 413 Downloads
The Maritime Continent is a region of intense rainfall characterised by a strong diurnal cycle. This study investigates the sensitivity of rainfall characteristics to resolution in a coupled regional climate model configuration, in particular focusing on processes that modulate the diurnal cycle. Model biases are resolution dependent. Increasing resolution from 3/4° to 1/4° improves the mean state sea surface temperature and precipitation biases. However, at higher resolutions (1/12°) rainfall becomes too strong in most areas. Daily maximum rainfall is simulated about 2–4 h earlier than in observations over both the land and the ocean, with only small improvements over high topography at higher resolution. We develop a technique to examine cross-coastal processes associated with the rainfall diurnal cycle along all coastlines. This is used to investigate the sensitivity of the diurnal cycle to resolution and to the direction of the prevailing wind. During offshore prevailing winds, most land rainfall is confined near the coastline and associated with a shallow land-sea breeze circulation at all resolution (though rainfall partly develops directly inland at 1/12°). During onshore prevailing winds, rainfall propagates from the coastline to the island interior at 1/4° and 1/12°, whereas it appears directly over the island interior at 3/4°, and this is associated with a deep convective cell across the coastline for all resolutions. Oceanic rainfall propagates far offshore during offshore prevailing winds at all resolutions, whereas it tends to remain confined near the coastline under onshore prevailing winds condition, particularly at higher resolution.
KeywordsMaritime Continent Diurnal cycle Regional coupled model Horizontal resolution Land-sea breeze Prevailing wind
This work was supported by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science (CE110001028) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Australia. The collaboration with S.M. was supported by the Visiting Researcher Fellowship of the UNSW faculty of science and by the project PULSATION ANR-11-MONU-0010 of the French National Research Agency (ANR). WRF was provided by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (http://www2.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/download/get_source.htm). All the simulations were performed on the Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI).
- Amante C, Eakins BW (2009) ETOPO1 1 arc-minute global relief model: procedures, data sources and analysis. US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, National Geophysical Data Center, Marine Geology and Geophysics DivisionGoogle Scholar
- Barnier B, Dussin R, Molines JM (2011) Scientific Validation Report (ScVR) for V1 Reprocessed Analysis and Reanalysis. WP 04—GLO—CNRS_LEGI GrenobleGoogle Scholar
- Bhatt BC, Sobolowski S, Higuchi A (2016) Simulation of diurnal rainfall variability over the Maritime Continent with a high-resolution regional climate model. 気象集誌 第 2 輯 94:89–103Google Scholar
- Boyle J, Klein SA (2010) Impact of horizontal resolution on climate model forecasts of tropical precipitation and diabatic heating for the TWP-ICE period. J. Geophys Res Atmos 1984–2012:115Google Scholar
- Chou MD, Suarez MJ (1994) An efficient thermal infrared radiation parameterization for use in general circulation models. NASA Tech. Memo. 104606, Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation, vol 3. pp 102. Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USAGoogle Scholar
- Levitus S, Conkright ME, Boyer TP, O'Brien T, Antonov JI, Stephens C, Stathoplos L, Johnson D, Gelfeld R (1998) World Ocean Database 1998, Volume 1: Introduction. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 18. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, p 346Google Scholar
- Lungu, T., and Coauthors (2006) QuikSCAT Science Data Product User’s Manual Version 3.0. -18053-Rev Pasadena CA Jet Propuls. Lab. Calif. Inst. TechnolGoogle Scholar
- Madec, G (2008) NEMO ocean engine. Note du Pôle de modélisation, Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), France, No 27 ISSN No 1288-1619Google Scholar
- Skamarock, WC, Klemp JB, Dudhia J, Gill DO, Barker D, Duda MG, Huang X-Y, Powers JG, Wang W (2008) A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-475 + STR. doi: 10.5065/D68S4MVH
- Sobel AH, Burleyson CD, Yuter SE (2011) Rain on small tropical islands. J Geophys Res Atmos 1984–2012:116Google Scholar
- The Drakkar group (2007) Eddy-permitting ocean circulation hindcasts of past decades. Clivar Exch 42:8–10Google Scholar