The role of El Niño in the global energy redistribution: a case study in the mid-Holocene
It has been shown that El Niño events contribute to discharge the warm pool excess of energy out of the tropical Pacific. In a different climate, the energetic budget in the tropical Pacific is altered, which might have an effect on the El Niño amplitude and/or occurrence and thereby on the role of El Niño on energy redistribution. The mid-Holocene period (6 ka BP) offers a good example of changes in the distribution of incoming solar energy. In particular, the equator-pole gradient was weaker compared to the modern period. We analyze long stable simulations of the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial era and discuss the mean- and El Niño-related energy transports in the two climates. We show that the role of global energy pump played by the tropical Pacific is reduced in the mid-Holocene in our simulation, both in long-term mean and during El Niño years. We demonstrate that this is not only a direct response to insolation forcing but this is further amplified by changes in internal processes. We analyze the relative role of El Niño events in the Pacific discharge in the two climates and show that it is reduced in the mid-Holocene, i.e. the fraction of the Pacific discharge that is due to El Niño is reduced. This is mainly due to reduction in the occurrence of El Niño events. This work gives a new approach to address El Niño changes, from the perspective of the role of El Niño in global energy redistribution.