Climate Dynamics

, Volume 48, Issue 9–10, pp 3207–3226 | Cite as

Evidence for the existence of Persian Gulf Water and Red Sea Water in the Bay of Bengal

  • Vineet Jain
  • D. Shankar
  • P. N. Vinayachandran
  • A. Kankonkar
  • Abhisek Chatterjee
  • P. Amol
  • A. M. Almeida
  • G. S. Michael
  • A. Mukherjee
  • Meenakshi Chatterjee
  • R. Fernandes
  • R. Luis
  • Amol Kamble
  • A. K. Hegde
  • Siddhartha Chatterjee
  • Umasankar Das
  • C. P. Neema
Article

Abstract

The high-salinity water masses that originate in the North Indian Ocean are Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW). Among them, only ASHSW has been shown to exist in the Bay of Bengal. We use CTD data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order of ~0.005 psu and therefore comparable to the CTD accuracy of 0.003 psu), is an order of magnitude larger than the ~0.0003 psu fluctuations associated with the background turbulence or instrument noise in this depth regime, allowing us to infer the existence of RSW throughout the bay. PGW is marked by the presence of a salinity maximum at 200–450 m; in the southwestern bay, PGW can be distinguished from the salinity maximum due to ASHSW because of the intervening Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum. This salinity minimum and the maximum associated with ASHSW disappear east and north of the south-central bay (85°E, 8°N) owing to mixing between the fresher surface waters that are native to the bay (Bay of Bengal Water or BBW) with the high-salinity ASHSW. Hence, ASHSW is not seen as a distinct water mass in the northern and eastern bay and the maximum salinity over most of the bay is associated with PGW. The surface water over most of the bay is therefore a mixture of ASHSW and the low-salinity BBW. As a corollary, we can also infer that the weak oxygen peak seen within the oxygen-minimum zone in the bay at a depth of 250–400 m is associated with PGW. The hydrographic data also show that these three high-salinity water masses are advected into the bay by the Summer Monsoon Current, which is seen to be a deep current extending to 1000 m. These deep currents extend into the northern bay as well, providing a mechanism for spreading ASHSW, PGW, and RSW throughout the bay.

Keywords

Water masses Indian Ocean Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water Persian Gulf Water Red Sea Water Oxygen minimum zone Summer Monsoon Current CTD 

Supplementary material

382_2016_3259_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (409 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (pdf 408 KB)

Supplementary material 2 (mpg 10061 KB)

References

  1. Amol P, Shankar D, Fernando V, Mukherjee A, Aparna SG, Fernandes R, Michael GS, Khalap ST, Satelkar NP, Agarvadekar Y, Gaonkar MG, Tari AP, Kankonkar A, Vernekar SP (2014) Observed intraseasonal and seasonal variability of the West India Coastal Current on the continental slope. J Earth Syst Sci 123:1045–1074. doi:10.1007/s12040-014-0449-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Babu VR, Varkey MJ, Das VK, Gouveia AD (1980) Water masses and general hydrography along the west coast of India during early March. Indian J Mar Sci 9:82–89Google Scholar
  3. Banse K (1968) Hydrography of the Arabian Sea shelf of India and Pakistan and effects on demersal fishes. Deep-Sea Res 15:45–79. doi:10.1016/0011-7471(68)90028-4 Google Scholar
  4. Banse K, Postel JR (2009) Wintertime convection and ventilation of the upper pycnocline in the northernmost Arabian Sea. Geophys Monogr Ser 185:87–117. doi:10.1029/2008GM000704 Google Scholar
  5. Beal LM, Ffield A, Gordon AL (2000) Spreading of Red Sea overflow waters in the Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res 105:8549–8564. doi:10.1029/1999JC900306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beal LM, Chereskin TK, Bryden HL, Ffield A (2003) Variability of water properties, heat and salt fluxes in the Arabian Sea, between the onset and wane of the 1995 southwest monsoon. Deep-Sea Res Part II 50:2049–2075. doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(03)00045-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonjean F, Lagerloef GSE (2002) Diagnostic model and analysis of the surface currents in the tropical Pacific Ocean. J Phys Oceanogr 32:2938–2954. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(2002)032<2938:DMAAOT>2.0.CO;2
  8. Bower AS, Hunt HD, Price JF (2000) Character and dynamics of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows. J Geophys Res 105:6387–6414. doi:10.1029/1999JC900297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Broecker W (1997) Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles Heel of our climate system: Will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science 278:1582–1588. doi:10.1126/science.278.5343.1582 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chatterjee A, Shankar D, Shenoi SSC, Reddy GV, Michael GS, Ravichandran M, Gopalkrishna V, Rao EPR, Bhaskar TVSU, Sanjeevan VN (2012) A new atlas of temperature and salinity for the North Indian Ocean. J Earth Syst Sci 121:559–593. doi:10.1007/s12040-012-0191-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Darbyshire M (1967) The surface waters off the coast of Kerala, south-west India. Deep-Sea Res 14:295–320. doi:10.1016/0011-7471(67)90073-3 Google Scholar
  12. Emery WJ, Meincke J (1986) Global water masses: summary and review. Oceanol Acta 9:383–391Google Scholar
  13. Fine RA, Smethie WM, Bullister JL, Rhein M, Min DH, Warner MJ, Poisson A, Weiss RF (2008) Decadal ventilation and mixing of Indian Ocean waters. Deep-Sea Res Part I 55:20–37. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2007.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gallagher JF (1966) The variability of water masses in the Indian Ocean. NODC-Pub-G-11, National Oceanographic Data Center, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. Gamsakhurdiya GR, Meschanov SL, Shapiro GI (1991) Seasonal variations in the distribution of Red Sea Waters in the northwestern Indian Ocean. Oceanology 31:32–37Google Scholar
  16. Han W, McCreary JP (2001) Modeling salinity distributions in the Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res 106:859–877. doi:10.1029/2000JC000316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Han W, McCreary JP, Kohler KE (2001) Influence of precipitation minus evaporation and Bay of Bengal rivers on dynamics, thermodynamics, and mixed layer physics in the upper Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res 106:6895–6916. doi:10.1029/2000JC000403 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hastenrath S, Greischar L (1991) The monsoonal current regimes of the tropical Indian Ocean: observed surface flow fields and their geostrophic and wind-driven components. J Geophys Res 96:12619–12633. doi:10.1029/91JC00997 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Helland-Hansen B (1916) Nogen hydrografiske metoder. Forhandlinger ved de 16 Skandinaviske Naturforskerermøte. Kristania, Oslo, Norway, pp 357–359Google Scholar
  20. Ivanov-Frantskevich GN (1961) Some peculiarities of hydrography and water masses of the Indian Ocean. In: Oceanology research articles, I. G. Y. Program (Oceanology), vol 4, Acad. Sci. USSR, Moscow, pp 7–18Google Scholar
  21. Jensen TG (2001) Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal exchange of salt and tracers in an ocean model. Geophys Res Lett 28:3967–3970. doi:10.1029/2001GL013422 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar SP, Prasad TG (1999) Formation and spreading of Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water mass. J Geophys Res 104:1455–1464. doi:10.1029/1998JC900022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Levitus S (1982) Climatological atlas of the world ocean. US Gov Printing Office, Rockville, MD NOAA Professional Paper 13Google Scholar
  24. Li-Li X, Yun QIU, Jin-Dian XU, Yun-Kai HE (2012) Hydrography and circulation in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean during April–May 2011. Atmos Ocean Sci Lett 5:284–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mamayev OI (1975) Temperature-salinity analysis of world ocean waters. Elsevier Scientific, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  26. McCreary JP, Kundu PK, Molinari RL (1993) A numerical investigation of dynamics, thermodynamics and mixed-layer processes in the Indian Ocean. Prog Oceanogr 31:181–244. doi:10.1016/0079-6611(93)90002-U CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McCreary JP, Han W, Shankar D, Shetye SR (1996) Dynamics of the East India Coastal Current: 2. Numerical solutions. J Geophys Res 101:13993–14010. doi:10.1029/96JC00560 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McCreary JP, Yu Z, Hood RR, Vinayachandran PN, Furue R, Ishida A, Richards KJ (2013) Dynamics of the Indian-Ocean oxygen minimum zones. Prog Oceanogr 112–113:15–37. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2013.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meschanov SL, Shapiro GI (1998) A young lens of Red Sea Water in the Arabian Sea. Deep-Sea Res Part I 45:1–13. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(97)00018-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mukherjee A, Shankar D, Fernando V, Amol P, Aparna SG, Fernandes R, Michael GS, Khalap ST, Satelkar NP, Agarvadekar Y, Gaonkar MG, Tari AP, Kankonkar A, Vernekar S (2014) Observed seasonal and intraseasonal variability of the East India Coastal Current on the continental slope. J Earth Syst Sci 123:1197–1232. doi:10.1007/s12040-014-0471-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Murray SP, Johns W (1997) Direct observations of seasonal exchange through the Bab el Mandab Strait. Geophys Res Lett 24:2557–2560. doi:10.1029/97GL02741 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Murty VSN, Sarma YVB, Rao DP, Murty CS (1992) Water characteristics, mixing and circulation in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon. J Mar Res 50:207–228. doi:10.1357/002224092784797700 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Naqvi SWA (1987) Some aspects of the oxygen-deficient conditions and denitrification in the Arabian Sea. J Mar Res 45:1049–1072. doi:10.1357/002224087788327118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Naqvi SWA (1991) Geographical extent of denitrification in the Arabian Sea in relation to some physical processes. Oceanol Acta 14:281–290Google Scholar
  35. Prasad TG, Ikeda M (2002) A numerical study of the seasonal variability of Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water. J Geophys Res 107:3197. doi:10.1029/2001JC001139 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Prasad TG, Ikeda M, Kumar SP (2001) Seasonal spreading of the Persian Gulf Water mass in the Arabian Sea. J Geophys Res 106:17059–17071. doi:10.1029/2000JC00048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Premkumar K, Ravichandran M, Kalsi SR, Sengupta D, Gadgil S (2000) First results from a new observational system over the Indian seas. Curr Sci 78:323–331Google Scholar
  38. Rao SA, Saha SK, Pokhrel S, Sundar D, Dhakate AR, Mahapatra S, S A, Chaudhari H, Sreeram P, Vasimalla S, Srikanth AS, Suresh RRV (2011) Modulation of SST, SSS over northern Bay of Bengal on ISO time scale. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2010JC006804
  39. Rochford DJ (1964) Salinity maxima in the upper 1000 metres of the North Indian Ocean. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 15:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Saafani MAA (2008) Physical oceanography of the Gulf of Aden. Ph.D. thesis, Goa University, Goa, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  41. Saafani MAA, Shenoi SSC (2004) Seasonal cycle of hydrography in the Bab el Mandab region, southern Red Sea. J Earth Syst Sci 113:269–280. doi:10.1007/BF02716725 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Saafani MAA, Shenoi SSC (2007) Water masses in the Gulf of Aden. J Oceanogr 63:1–14. doi:10.1007/s10872-007-0001-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sardessai S, Ramaiah N, Kumar SP, de Sousa SN (2007) Influence of environmental forcings on the seasonality of dissolved oxygen and nutrients in the Bay of Bengal. J Mar Res 65:301–316Google Scholar
  44. Sastry JS, Rao DP, Murty VSN, Sarma YVB, Suryanarayana A, Babu MT (1985) Watermass structure in the Bay of Bengal. Mahasagar 18:153–162Google Scholar
  45. Schott FA, McCreary JP (2001) The monsoon circulation of the Indian Ocean. Prog Oceanogr 51:1–123. doi:10.1016/S0079-6611(01)00083-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schott F, Reppin J, Fischer J, Quadfasel D (1994) Currents and transports of the Monsoon Current South of Sri Lanka. J Geophys Res 99:25127–25141. doi:10.1029/94JC02216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schott FA, Xie SP, McCreary JP (2009) Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability. Rev Geophys. doi:10.1029/2007RG000245 Google Scholar
  48. Shankar D, Shetye SR (1997) On the dynamics of the Lakshadweep high and low in the southeastern Arabian Sea. J Geophys Res 102:12551–12562. doi:10.1029/97JC00465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shankar D, McCreary JP, Han W, Shetye SR (1996) Dynamics of the East India Coastal Current: 1. Analytic solutions forced by interior Ekman pumping and local alongshore winds. J Geophys Res 101:13975–13991. doi:10.1029/96JC00559 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shankar D, Vinayachandran PN, Unnikrishnan AS (2002) The monsoon currents in the north Indian Ocean. Prog Oceanogr 52:63–120. doi:10.1016/S0079-6611(02)00024-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shankar D, Shenoi SSC, Nayak RK, Vinayachandran PN, Nampoothiri G, Almeida AM, Michael GS, Kumar MR, Sundar D, Sreejith OP (2005) Hydrography of the eastern Arabian Sea during summer monsoon 2002. J Earth Syst Sci 114:459–474. doi:10.1007/BF02702023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shankar D, Remya R, Vinayachandran PN, Chatterjee A, Behera A (2015) Inhibition of mixed-layer deepening during winter in the northeastern Arabian Sea by the West India Coastal Current. Clim Dyn. doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2888-3 Google Scholar
  53. Shapiro GI, Meschanov SL (1991) Distribution and spreading of Red Sea Water and salt lens formation in the northwest Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res Part I 38:21–34. doi:10.1016/0198-0149(91)90052-H CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shenoi SSC, Shetye SR, Gouveia AD, Michael GS (1993) Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea. In: Ittekkot V, Nair RR (eds) Monsoon biogeochemistry, Mitteilungen des Geologisch-Paläontologischen Instituts der Universität Hamburg, University of Hamburg, Germany, pp 37–49Google Scholar
  55. Shenoi SSC, Shankar D, Shetye SR (2002) Differences in heat budgets of the near-surface Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal: implications for the summer monsoon. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2000JC000679 Google Scholar
  56. Shenoi SSC, Shankar D, Michael GS, Kurian J, Varma KK, Kumar MRR, Almeida AM, Unnikrishnan AS, Fernandes W, Barreto N, Gnanaseelan C, Mathew R, Praju KV, Mahale V (2005) Hydrography and water masses in the southeastern Arabian Sea during March–June 2003. J Earth Syst Sci 114:475–491. doi:10.1007/BF02702024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shetye SR, Shenoi SSC, Gouveia AD, Michael GS, Sundar D, Nampoothiri G (1991) Wind-driven coastal upwelling along the western boundary of the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon. Cont Shelf Res 11:1397–1408. doi:10.1016/0278-4343(91)90042-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shetye SR, Gouveia AD, Shenoi SSC (1992) Does winter cooling lead to the subsurface salinity minimum off Saurashtra, India. In: Desai BN (ed) Oceanography of the Indian Ocean. Oxford and India Book House, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  59. Shetye SR, Gouveia AD, Shenoi SSC, Sundar D, Michael GS, Nampoothiri G (1993) The western boundary current of the seasonal subtropical gyre in the Bay of Bengal. J Geophys Res 98:945–954. doi:10.1029/92JC02070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Shetye SR, Gouveia AD, Shenoi SSC (1994) Circulation and water masses of the Arabian Sea. Proc Indian Acad Sci (Earth Planet Sci) 103:107–123. doi:10.1007/BF02839532 (special issue: Biogeochemistry of the Arabian Sea)
  61. Shetye SR, Gouveia AD, Shankar D, Shenoi SSC, Vinayachandran PN, Sundar D, Michael GS, Nampoothiri G (1996) Hydrography and circulation in the western Bay of Bengal during the northeast monsoon. J Geophys Res 101:14,011–14,025. doi:10.1029/95JC03307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sprintall J, Tomczak M (1993) On the formation of Central Water and thermocline ventilation in the southern hemisphere. Deep-Sea Res Part I 40:827–848. doi:10.1016/0967-0637(93)90074-d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stommel HM (1966) The large-scale oceanic circulation. In: Hurley P (ed) Advances in Earth science. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 175–184Google Scholar
  64. Subeesh MP, Unnikrishnan AS, Fernando V, Agarwadekar Y, Khalap ST, Satelkar NP, Shenoi SSC (2013) Observed tidal currents on the continental shelf off the west coast of India. Cont Shelf Res 69:123–140. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2013.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sverdrup HU, Johnson MW, Fleming RH (1942) The water masses and currents of the oceans. The oceans their physics, chemistry, and general biology. Prentice-Hall, New York, pp 605–761Google Scholar
  66. Talley LD, Pickard GL, Emery WJ, Swift JH (2011) Descriptive physical oceanography: an introduction, 6th edn. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  67. Varadachari VVR, Murty CS, Reddy CVG (1968) Salinity maxima associated with some sub-surface water masses in the upper layers of the Bay of Bengal. Bull Natl Inst Sci India 38:338–343Google Scholar
  68. Vinayachandran PN, Yamagata T (1998) Monsoon response of the sea around Sri Lanka: generation of thermal domes and anticyclonic vortices. J Phys Oceanogr 28:1946–1960. doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1998)028<1946:MROTSA>2.0.CO%3B2
  69. Vinayachandran PN, Masumoto Y, Mikawa T, Yamagata T (1999) Intrusion of the Southwest Monsoon Current into the Bay of Bengal. J Geophys Res 104:11077–11085. doi:10.1029/1999JC900035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vinayachandran PN, Murty VSN, Babu VR (2002) Observations of barrier layer formation in the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2001JC000831 Google Scholar
  71. Vinayachandran PN, Shankar D, Vernekar S, Sandeep KK, Amol P, Neema CP, Chatterjee A (2013) A summer monsoon pump to keep the Bay of Bengal salty. Geophys Res Lett 40:1777–1782. doi:10.1002/grl.50274 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wijesekera HW, Jensen TG, Jarosz E, Teague WJ, Metzger EJ, Wang DW, Jinadasa SUP, Arulananthan K, Centurioni LR, Fernando HJS (2015) Southern Bay of Bengal currents and salinity intrusions during the northeast monsoon. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1002/2015JC010744 Google Scholar
  73. Worthington LV (1981) The water masses of the world ocean: Some results of a fine-scale census. Evolution of physical oceanography: Scientific surveys in honor of Henry Stommel. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 42–69Google Scholar
  74. Wunsch C (2002) What is the thermohaline circulation? Science 298:1179–1181. doi:10.1126/science.1079329 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wyrtki K (1971) Oceanographic atlas of the International Indian Ocean expedition. National Science Foundation, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  76. Wyrtki K (1973a) An equatorial jet in the Indian Ocean. Science 181:262–264. doi:10.1126/science.181.4096.262 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wyrtki K (1973b) Physical oceanography of the Indian Ocean. In: Zeitzschel B (ed) The biology of the Indian Ocean. Springer, Berlin, pp 18–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. You Y, Tomczak M (1993) Thermocline circulation and ventilation in the Indian Ocean derived from water mass analysis. Deep-Sea Res Part I 40:13–56. doi:10.1016/0967-0637(93)90052-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vineet Jain
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. Shankar
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. N. Vinayachandran
    • 3
  • A. Kankonkar
    • 1
  • Abhisek Chatterjee
    • 1
    • 5
  • P. Amol
    • 1
    • 3
  • A. M. Almeida
    • 1
  • G. S. Michael
    • 1
  • A. Mukherjee
    • 1
    • 5
  • Meenakshi Chatterjee
    • 4
  • R. Fernandes
    • 1
    • 6
  • R. Luis
    • 1
  • Amol Kamble
    • 1
  • A. K. Hegde
    • 1
  • Siddhartha Chatterjee
    • 1
    • 4
  • Umasankar Das
    • 3
    • 7
  • C. P. Neema
    • 3
  1. 1.CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR-NIO)GoaIndia
  2. 2.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR-NIO)GoaIndia
  3. 3.Indian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia
  4. 4.Basanti Devi CollegeKolkataIndia
  5. 5.ESSO-Indian National Centre for Ocean Information ServicesHyderabadIndia
  6. 6.Hydrographic Training CentreGeneral Commission for SurveyJeddahSaudi Arabia
  7. 7.India Meteorological DepartmentPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations