Modulation of western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity by the Atlantic Meridional Mode
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This study examines the year-to-year modulation of the western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclones (TC) activity by the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) using both observations and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Forecast-oriented Low Ocean Resolution Version of CM2.5 (FLOR) global coupled model. 1. The positive (negative) AMM phase suppresses (enhances) WNP TC activity in observations. The anomalous occurrence of WNP TCs results mainly from changes in TC genesis in the southeastern part of the WNP. 2. The observed responses of WNP TC activity to the AMM are connected to the anomalous zonal vertical wind shear (ZVWS) caused by AMM-induced changes to the Walker circulation. During the positive AMM phase, the warming in the North Atlantic induces strong descending flow in the tropical eastern and central Pacific, which intensifies the Walker cell in the WNP. The intensified Walker cell is responsible for the suppressed (enhanced) TC genesis in the eastern (western) part of the WNP by strengthening (weakening) ZVWS. 3. The observed WNPTC–AMM linkage is examined by the long-term control and idealized perturbations experiment with FLOR-FA. A suite of sensitivity experiments strongly corroborate the observed WNPTC–AMM linkage and underlying physical mechanisms.
KeywordsTropical cyclone Western North Pacific Atlantic Meridional Mode
The authors are grateful to Jim Kossin and an anonymous reviewer for their insightful comments that improve this paper. The authors thank Lakshmi Krishnamurthy and Honghai Zhang for their comments that improve an earlier version of this manuscript. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants AGS-1262091 and AGS-1262099.
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