Climate Dynamics

, Volume 47, Issue 1–2, pp 173–190

A model based investigation of the relative importance of CO2-fertilization, climate warming, nitrogen deposition and land use change on the global terrestrial carbon uptake in the historical period


DOI: 10.1007/s00382-015-2830-8

Cite this article as:
Devaraju, N., Bala, G., Caldeira, K. et al. Clim Dyn (2016) 47: 173. doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2830-8


In this paper, using the fully coupled NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM1.0.4), we investigate the relative importance of CO2-fertilization, climate warming, anthropogenic nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover change (LULCC) for terrestrial carbon uptake during the historical period (1850–2005). In our simulations, between the beginning and end of this period, we find an increase in global net primary productivity (NPP) on land of about 4 PgCyr−1 (8.2 %) with a contribution of 2.3 PgCyr−1 from CO2-fertilization and 2.0 PgCyr−1 from nitrogen deposition. Climate warming also causes NPP to increase by 0.35 PgCyr−1 but LULCC causes a decline of 0.7 PgCyr−1. These results indicate that the recent increase in vegetation productivity is most likely driven by CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition. Further, we find that this configuration of CESM projects that the global terrestrial ecosystem has been a net source of carbon during 1850–2005 (release of 45.1 ± 2.4 PgC), largely driven by historical LULCC related CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere. During the recent three decades (early 1970s to early 2000s), however, our model simulations project that the terrestrial ecosystem acts as a sink, taking up about 10 PgC mainly due to CO2 fertilization and nitrogen deposition. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with recent studies that indicate an increase in vegetation production and water use efficiency in the satellite era and that the terrestrial ecosystem has been a net sink for carbon in recent decades.


Terrestrial carbon uptake CO2 fertilization Nitrogen deposition Climate change Land use land cover change Net primary productivity 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Devaraju
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. Bala
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • K. Caldeira
    • 4
  • R. Nemani
    • 5
  1. 1.Divecha Centre for Climate ChangeIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic SciencesIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Interdisciplinary Centre for Water ResearchIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia
  4. 4.Department of Global EcologyCarnegie InstitutionStanfordUSA
  5. 5.NASA Ames Research CenterMoffett FieldUSA

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