Climate Dynamics

, Volume 46, Issue 11–12, pp 3689–3707 | Cite as

A decomposition of ENSO’s impacts on the northern winter stratosphere: competing effect of SST forcing in the tropical Indian Ocean

Article

Abstract

This study applies WACCM, a stratosphere-resolving model to dissect the stratospheric responses in the northern winter extratropics to the imposed ENSO-related SST anomalies in the tropics. It is found that the anomalously warmer and weaker stratospheric polar vortex during warm ENSO is basically a balance of the opposite effects between the SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific (TPO) and that over the tropical Indian Ocean basin (TIO). Specifically, the ENSO-related SST anomalies over the TIO are to induce an anomalously colder and stronger stratospheric polar vortex during warm ENSO, which acts to partially cancel out the much stronger warmer and weaker polar vortex response to the SST anomalies over the TPO. Further analysis indicates that, while the SST forcing from the TPO contributes to the anomalously positive Pacific North America (PNA) pattern in the troposphere and the enhancement of the stationary wavenumber (WN)-1 in the stratosphere during warm ENSO, the TIO SST forcing is to induce an anomalously negative PNA and a reduction of both WN-1 and WN-2 in the stratosphere. Diagnosis of E–P flux confirms that, the anomalously upward propagation of stationary waves in the extratropics mainly lies over the western coast of North America during warm ENSO, which is mainly associated with the TPO-induced positive PNA response and is partially suppressed by the effect of the accompanying TIO SST forcing.

Keywords

El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Indian Ocean basin (IOB) Stratospheric polar vortex WACCM Pacific–North America pattern (PNA) 

References

  1. Alexander MA, Blade I, Newman M, Lanzante JR, Lau NC, Scott JD (2002) The atmospheric bridge: the influence of ENSO teleconnections on air–sea interaction over the global oceans. J Clim 15(16):2205–2231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews DG, Holton JR, Leovy CB (1987) Middle atmosphere dynamics. Academic press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  3. Angell JK (1981) Comparison of variations in atmospheric quantities with sea surface temperature variations in the equatorial eastern Pacific. Mon Weather Rev 109(2):230–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angell JK, Korshover J (1978) Estimate of global temperature variations in the 100–30 mb layer between 1958 and 1977. Mon Weather Rev 106(10):1422–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Annamalai H, Okajima H, Watanabe M (2007) Possible impact of the Indian Ocean SST on the northern hemisphere circulation during El Niño. J Clim 20(13):3164–3189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baldwin MP, Dunkerton TJ (1999) Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J Geophys Res 104(D24):30937–30946. doi:10.1029/1999jd900445 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baldwin MP, O’sullivan D (1995) Stratospheric effects of ENSO-related tropospheric circulation anomalies. J Clim 8(4):649–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barsugli JJ, Sardeshmukh PD (2002) Global atmospheric sensitivity to tropical SST anomalies throughout the Indo-Pacific basin. J Clim 15(23):3427–3442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bekki S et al (2013) Climate impact of stratospheric ozone recovery. Geophys Res Lett 40(11):2796–2800. doi:10.1002/grl.50358 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bell CJ, Gray LJ, Charlton-Perez AJ, Joshi MM, Scaife AA (2009) Stratospheric communication of El Niño teleconnections to European winter. J Clim 22(15):4083–4096. doi:10.1175/2009jcli2717.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Branstator G (1985) Analysis of general circulation model sea surface temperature anomaly simulations using a linear model. Part II: eigenanalysis. J Atmos Sci 42(21):2242–2254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Branstator G, Haupt SE (1998) An empirical model of barotropic atmospheric dynamics and its response to tropical forcing. J Clim 11(10):2645–2667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cadet DL (1985) The Southern Oscillation over the Indian Ocean. J Climatol 5(2):189–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cagnazzo C, Manzini E (2009) Impact of the stratosphere on the winter tropospheric teleconnections between ENSO and the North Atlantic and European region. J Clim 22(5):1223–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cagnazzo C et al (2009) Northern winter stratospheric temperature and ozone responses to ENSO inferred from an ensemble of chemistry climate models. Atmos Chem Phys 9(22):8935–8948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cai M, Ren RC (2006) 40–70 day meridional propagation of global circulation anomalies. Geophys Res Lett 33:L06818. doi:10.1029/2005GL025024 Google Scholar
  17. Cai M, Ren RC (2007) Meridional and downward propagation of atmospheric circulation anomalies. Part I: Northern Hemisphere cold season variability. J Atmos Sci 64(6):1880–1901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Calvo N, Marsh DR (2011) The combined effects of ENSO and the 11 year solar cycle on the Northern Hemisphere polar stratosphere. J Geophys Res 116:D23112. doi:10.1029/2010JD015226 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Calvo N, Giorgetta MA, Garcia-Herrera R, Manzini E (2009) Nonlinearity of the combined warm ENSO and QBO effects on the Northern Hemisphere polar vortex in MAECHAM5 simulations. J Geophys Res 114:D13109. doi:10.1029/2008JD011445 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Camp CD, Tung KK (2007) Stratospheric polar warming by ENSO in winter: a statistical study. Geophys Res Lett 34:L04809. doi:10.1029/2006GL028521 Google Scholar
  21. Christiansen B (2001) Downward propagation of zonal mean zonal wind anomalies from the stratosphere to the troposphere: model and reanalysis. J Geophys Res 106(D21):27307–27322. doi:10.1029/2000jd000214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Copsey D, Sutton R, Knight JR (2006) Recent trends in sea level pressure in the Indian Ocean region. Geophys Res Lett 33(19):L19712. doi:10.1029/2006gl027175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Covey DL, Hastenrath S (1978) The Pacific El-Niño phenomenon and Atlantic circulation. Mon Wea Rev 106(9):1280–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Curtis S, Hastenrath S (1995) Forcing of anomalous sea surface temperature evolution in the tropical Atlantic during Pacific warm events. J Geophys Res 100(C8):15835–15847. doi:10.1029/95jc01502 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dee DP et al (2011) The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart J Roy Meteor Soc 137(656):553–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ding RQ, Li JP (2012) Influences of ENSO teleconnection on the persistence of sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean. J Clim 25(23):8177–8195. doi:10.1175/Jcli-D-11-00739.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Enfield DB, Mayer DA (1997) Tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature variability and its relation to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. J Geophys Res 102(C1):929–945. doi:10.1029/96jc03296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Farrara JD, Mechoso CR, Robertson AW (2000) Ensembles of AGCM two-tier predictions and simulations of the circulation anomalies during winter 1997–98. Mon Wea Rev 128(10):3589–3604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fletcher CG, Kushner PJ (2011) The role of linear interference in the annular mode response to tropical SST forcing. J Clim 24(3):778–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Free M, Seidel DJ (2009) Observed El Niño-Southern Oscillation temperature signal in the stratosphere. J Geophys Res 114:D23108. doi:10.1029/2009JD012420 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garcia RR, Marsh DR, Kinnison DE, Boville BA, Sassi F (2007) Simulation of secular trends in the middle atmosphere, 1950–2003. J Geophys Res 112:D09301. doi:10.1029/2006jd007485 Google Scholar
  32. García-Herrera R, Calvo N, Garcia RR, Giorgetta MA (2006) Propagation of ENSO temperature signals into the middle atmosphere: a comparison of two general circulation models and ERA-40 reanalysis data. J Geophys Res 111:D06101. doi:10.1029/2005JD006061 Google Scholar
  33. Garfinkel CI, Hartmann DL (2007) Effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation on polar temperatures in the stratosphere. J Geophys Res 112:D19112. doi:10.1029/2007JD008481 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garfinkel CI, Hartmann DL (2008) Different ENSO teleconnections and their effects on the stratospheric polar vortex. J Geophys Res 113:D18114. doi:10.1029/2008JD009920 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gill AE (1980) Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulation. Quart J Roy Meteor Soc 106(449):447–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Graf H-F, Zanchettin D, Timmreck C, Bittner M (2014) Observational constraints on the tropospheric and near-surface winter signature of the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex. Clim Dyn 43:3245–3266. doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2101-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hamilton K (1993) An examination of observed Southern Oscillation effects in the northern hemisphere stratosphere. J Atmos Sci 50(20):3468–3473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hamilton K (1995) Interannual variability in the northern hemisphere winter middle atmosphere in control and perturbed experiments with the GFDL SKYHI general circulation model. J Atmos Sci 52(1):44–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hegyi BM, Deng Y, Black RX, Zhou RJ (2014) Initial transient response of the winter polar stratospheric vortex to idealized equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies in the NCAR WACCM. J Clim 27(7):2699–2713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hoerling MP, Hurrell JW, Xu T, Bates GT, Phillips AS (2004) Twentieth century North Atlantic climate change. Part II: understanding the effect of Indian Ocean warming. Clim Dyn 23:391–405. doi:10.1007/s00382-004-0433-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoskins BJ, Karoly DJ (1981) The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J Atmos Sci 38(6):1179–1196. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1981)038<1179:Tslroa>2.0.Co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hoskins BJ, James IN, White GH (1983) The shape, Propagation and mean-flow interaction of large-scale weather systems. J Atmos Sci 40(7):1595–1612. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1983)040<1595:tspamf>2.0.co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hu D, Tian W, Xie F, Shu J, Dhomse S (2014) Effects of meridional sea surface temperature changes on stratospheric temperature and circulation. Adv Atmos Sci 31(4):888–900. doi:10.1007/s00376-013-3152-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ineson S, Scaife AA (2008) The role of the stratosphere in the European climate response to El Niño. Nat Geosci 2(1):32–36. doi:10.1038/ngeo381 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jin FF, Hoskins BJ (1995) The direct response to tropical heating in a baroclinic atmosphere. J Atmos Sci 52(3):307–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Klein SA, Soden BJ, Lau NC (1999) Remote sea surface temperature variations during ENSO: evidence for a tropical atmospheric bridge. J Clim 12(4):917–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kodera K, Yamazaki K, Chiba M, Shibata K (1990) Downward propagation of upper stratospheric mean zonal wind perturbation to the troposphere. Geophys Res Lett 17(9):1263–1266. doi:10.1029/Gl017i009p01263 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kosaka Y, Nakamura H (2006) Structure and dynamics of the summertime Pacific-Japan teleconnection pattern. Quart J Roy Meteorol Soc 132(619):2009–2030. doi:10.1256/qj.05.204o CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kumar A, Hoerling MP (1998) Specification of regional sea surface temperatures in atmospheric general circulation model simulations. J Geophys Res 103(D8):8901–8907. doi:10.1029/98jd00427 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kumar A, Hoerling MP (2003) The nature and causes for the delayed atmospheric response to El Niño. J Clim 16(9):1391–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Labitzke K, Van Loon H (1989) The Southern Oscillation. Part IX: the influence of volcanic eruptions on the Southern Oscillation in the stratosphere. J Clim 2(10):1223–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lan XQ, Chen W, Wang L (2012) Quasi-stationary planetary wave-mean flow interactions in the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere and their responses to ENSO events. Sci China Earth Sci 55(3):405–417. doi:10.1007/S11430-011-4345-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lanzante JR (1996) Lag relationships involving tropical sea surface temperatures. J Clim 9(10):2568–2578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Li Y, Lau NC (2013) Influences of ENSO on stratospheric variability, and the descent of stratospheric perturbations into the lower troposphere. J Clim 26(13):4725–4748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Li S, Robinson WA, Hoerling MP, Weickmann KM (2007) Dynamics of the extratropical response to a tropical Atlantic SST anomaly. J Clim 20(3):560–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Li YJ, Li JP, Jin FF, Zhao S (2015) Interhemispheric propagation of stationary Rossby waves in the horizontally nonuniform background flow. J Atmos Sci 72(8):3233–3256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Manzini E, Giorgetta MA, Esch M, Kornblueh L, Roeckner E (2006) The influence of sea surface temperatures on the northern winter stratosphere: ensemble simulations with the MAECHAM5 model. J Clim 19(16):3863–3881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marsh DR, Mills MJ, Kinnison DE, Lamarque J-F, Calvo N, Polvani LM (2013) Climate change from 1850 to 2005 Simulated in CESM1(WACCM). J Clim 26(19):7372–7391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mechoso CR, Lyons SW (1988) On the atmospheric response to SST anomalies associated with the Atlantic warm event during 1984. J Clim 1(4):422–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Murtugudde R, Busalacchi AJ (1999) Interannual variability of the dynamics and thermodynamics of the tropical Indian Ocean. J Clim 12(8):2300–2326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Neale RB, Richter J, Park S, Lauritzen PH, Vavrus SJ, Rasch PJ, Zhang MH (2013) The mean climate of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) in forced SST and fully coupled experiments. J Clim 26(14):5150–5168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Newell RE, Weare BC (1976) Factors governing tropospheric mean temperature. Science 194(4272):1413–1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Newman M, Sardeshmukh PD (1998) The impact of the annual cycle on the North Pacific/North American response to remote low-frequency forcing. J Atmos Sci 55(8):1336–1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nicholson SE (1997) An analysis of the ENSO signal in the tropical Atlantic and western Indian Oceans. Int J Climatol 17(4):345–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pan YH, Oort AH (1983) Global climate variations connected with sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific ocean for the 1958–73 period. Mon Weather Rev 111(6):1244–1258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Peng SL, Robinson WA, Li SL, Hoerling MP (2005) Tropical Atlantic SST forcing of coupled north Atlantic seasonal responses. J Clim 18(3):480–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Plumb RA (1985) On the three-dimensional propagation of stationary waves. J Atmos Sci 42(3):217–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Polvani LM, Waugh DW (2004) Upward wave activity flux as a precursor to extreme stratospheric events and subsequent anomalous surface weather regimes. J Clim 17(18):3548–3554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rao J, Ren RC, Yang Y (2014) Numerical simulations of the impacts of tropical convective heating on the intensity of the northern winter stratospheric polar vortex. Chin J Atmos Sci 38(6):1159–1171 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  70. Rao J, Ren RC, Yang Y (2015) Parallel comparison of the northern winter stratospheric circulation in reanalysis and in CMIP5 models. Adv Atmos Sci 32(7):952–966. doi:10.1007/s00376-014-4192-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rayner NA et al (2006) Improved analyses of changes and uncertainties in sea surface temperature measured in situ since the mid-nineteenth century: the HadSST2 dataset. J Clim 19(3):446–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Reid GC, Gage KS, Mcafee JR (1989) The thermal response of the tropical atmosphere to variations in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature. J Geophys Res 94(D12):14705–14716. doi:10.1029/Jd094id12p14705 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ren RC, Cai M (2007) Meridional and vertical out-of-phase relationships of temperature anomalies associated with the Northern Annular Mode variability. Geophys Res Lett 34:L07704. doi:10.1029/2006GL028729 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ren RC, Yang Y (2012) Changes in winter stratospheric circulation in CMIP5 scenarios simulated by the climate system model FGOALS-s2. Adv Atmos Sci 29(6):1374–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ren RC, Cai M, Xiang C, Wu G (2012) Observational evidence of the delayed response of stratospheric polar vortex variability to ENSO SST anomalies. Clim Dyn 38:1345–1358. doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1137-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Richter JH, Sassi F, Garcia RR (2010) Toward a physically based gravity wave source parameterization in a general circulation model. J Atmos Sci 67(1):136–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Robertson AW, Mechoso CR, Kim YJ (2000) The influence of Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on the north Atlantic oscillation. J Clim 13(1):122–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sardeshmukh PD, Hoskins BJ (1988) The generation of global rotational flow by steady idealized tropical divergence. J Atmos Sci 45(7):1228–1251. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<1228:Tgogrf>2.0.Co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sassi F, Kinnison D, Boville BA, Garcia RR, Roble R (2004) Effect of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the dynamical, thermal, and chemical structure of the middle atmosphere. J Geophys Res 109:D17108. doi:10.1029/2003JD004434 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Scaife AA, Butchart N, Jackson DR, Swinbank R (2003) Can changes in ENSO activity help to explain increasing stratospheric water vapor? Geophys Res Lett 30(17):1880. doi:10.1029/2003GL017591 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Simmons AJ, Wallace JM, Branstator GW (1983) Barotropic wave propagation and instability, and atmospheric teleconnection patterns. J Atmos Sci 40(6):1363–1392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Spencer H, Slingo JM, Davey MK (2004) Seasonal predictability of ENSO teleconnections: the role of the remote ocean response. Clim Dyn 22:511–526. doi:10.1007/s0082-004-0393-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sutton RT, Hodson DLR (2007) Climate response to basin-scale warming and cooling of the North Atlantic Ocean. J Clim 20(5):891–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Taguchi M (2010) Wave driving in the tropical lower stratosphere as simulated by WACCM. Part II: ENSO-induced changes for northern winter. J Atmos Sci 67(2):543–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Taguchi M, Hartmann DL (2006) Increased occurrence of stratospheric sudden warmings during El Niño as simulated by WACCM. J Clim 19(3):324–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ting MF, Sardeshmukh PD (1993) Factors determining the extratropical response to equatorial diabatic heating anomalies. J Atmos Sci 50(6):907–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Toniazzo T, Scaife AA (2006) The influence of ENSO on winter North Atlantic climate. Geophys Res Lett 33(24):L24704. doi:10.1029/2006gl027881 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tourre YM, White WB (1995) ENSO signals in global upper-ocean temperature. J Phys Oceanogr 25(6):1317–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Van Loon H, Labitzke K (1987) The Southern Oscillation. Part V: the anomalies in the lower stratosphere of the northern hemisphere in winter and a comparison with the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Mon Weather Rev 115(2):357–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Van Loon H, Zerefos CS, Repapis CC (1982) The Southern Oscillation in the stratosphere. Mon Wea Rev 110(3):225–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wallace JM, Chang FC (1982) Interannual variability of the wintertime polar vortex in the northern hemisphere middle stratosphere. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 60(1):149–155Google Scholar
  92. Wang C, Lee S-K, Enfield DB (2008) Climate response to anomalously large and small Atlantic warm pools during the summer. J Clim 21(11):2437–2450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Watanabe M, Kimoto M (1999) Tropical-extratropical connection in the Atlantic atmosphere–ocean variability. Geophys Res Lett 26(15):2247–2250. doi:10.1029/1999gl900350 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Weare BC, Navato AR, Newell RE (1976) Empirical orthogonal analysis of Pacific sea surface temperatures. J Phys Oceanogr 6(5):671–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wei K, Chen W, Huang RH (2007) Association of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures with the stratospheric Holton-Tan Oscillation in the Northern Hemisphere winter. Geophys Res Lett 34:L16814. doi:10.1029/2007GL030478 Google Scholar
  96. Wu L, He F, Liu Z, Li C (2007) Atmospheric teleconnections of tropical Atlantic variability: interhemispheric, tropical-extratropical, and cross-basin interactions. J Clim 20(5):856–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Xie F, Li J, Tian W, Feng J, Huo Y (2012) Signals of El Niño Modoki in the tropical tropopause layer and stratosphere. Atmos Chem Phys 12(11):5259–5273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Xie F, Li J, Tian W, Zhang J, Shu J (2014a) The impacts of two types of El Niño on global ozone variations in the last three decades. Adv Atmos Sci 31(5):1113–1126. doi:10.1007/s00376-013-3166-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Xie F, Li J, Tian W, Zhang J, Sun C (2014b) The relative impacts of El Niño Modoki, canonical El Niño, and QBO on tropical ozone changes since the 1980s. Environ Res Lett 9(6):064020. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/064020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yu LS, Rienecker MM (1999) Mechanisms for the Indian Ocean warming during the 1997–98 El Niño. Geophys Res Lett 26(6):735–738. doi:10.1029/1999gl900072 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zhao S, Li JP, Li YJ (2015) Dynamics of an interhemispheric teleconnection across the critical latitude through a southerly duct during boreal winter. J Clim. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00425.1 Google Scholar
  102. Zubiaurre I, Calvo N (2012) The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Modoki signal in the stratosphere. J Geophys Res D04104. doi:10.1029/2011JD016690

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters and KLMENanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations