Climate Dynamics

, Volume 46, Issue 3–4, pp 913–927 | Cite as

Cyclone contribution to the Mediterranean Sea water budget

  • E. FlaounasEmail author
  • A. Di Luca
  • P. Drobinski
  • S. Mailler
  • T. Arsouze
  • S. Bastin
  • K. Beranger
  • C. Lebeaupin Brossier


This paper analyzes the impact of cyclones to the atmospheric components on the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget, namely the cyclones contribution to precipitation and evaporation over the Mediterranean Sea. Three regional simulations were performed with the WRF model for the period 1989–2008. The model was run (1) as a standalone model, (2) coupled with the oceanic model NEMO-MED12 and (3) forced by the smoothed Sea Surface Temperature (SST) fields from the second simulation. Cyclones were tracked in all simulations, and their contribution to the total rainfall and evaporation was quantified. Results show that cyclones are mainly associated with extreme precipitation, representing more than 50 % of the annual rainfall over the Mediterranean Sea. On the other hand, we found that cyclone-induced evaporation represents only a small fraction of the annual total, except in winter, when the most intense Mediterranean cyclones take place. Despite the significant contribution of cyclones to rainfall, our results show that there is a balance between cyclone-induced rainfall and evaporation, suggesting a weak net impact of cyclones on the Mediterranean Sea water budget. The sensitivity of our results with respect to rapid SST changes during the development of cyclones was also investigated. Both rainfall and evaporation are affected in correlation with the SST response to the atmosphere. In fact, air feedbacks to the Mediterranean Sea during the cyclones occurrence were shown to cool down the SST and consequently to reduce rainfall and evaporation at the proximity of cyclone centers.


Cyclone Relative Vorticity Freshwater Flux Cyclone Center Mediterranean Cyclone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work is a contribution to the HYdrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment (HyMeX) programme through INSU–MISTRALS support and the Mediterranean region COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (Med-CORDEX) programme. This research was supported by the IPSL group for regional climate and environmental studies, with granted access to the HPC resources of IDRIS under allocation 2011 (Project Number 010227). EF was supported by the IMPACT2C program (funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme, FP7/2007–2013 under the Grant agreement 282746).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Flaounas
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Di Luca
    • 1
    • 6
  • P. Drobinski
    • 1
  • S. Mailler
    • 1
  • T. Arsouze
    • 2
  • S. Bastin
    • 3
  • K. Beranger
    • 2
    • 4
  • C. Lebeaupin Brossier
    • 5
  1. 1.Institut Pierre Simon Laplace/LaBoratoire de Météorologie DynamiqueCNRS and Ecole PolytechniquePalaiseauFrance
  2. 2.ENSTA-ParisTechPalaiseauFrance
  3. 3.Institut Pierre Simon Laplace/LaBoratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations SpatialesCNRS and Université Versailles Saint QuentinGuyancourtFrance
  4. 4.Laboratoire d’Etude des Transferts en HydrologieUniversité Grenoble-AlpesGrenobleFrance
  5. 5.CNRM-GAME, Météo-France and CNRSToulouseFrance
  6. 6.Climate Change Research CentreUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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