Advertisement

Climate Dynamics

, Volume 44, Issue 5–6, pp 1277–1292 | Cite as

Evaluation of regional ocean circulation models for the Mediterranean Sea at the Strait of Gibraltar: volume transport and thermohaline properties of the outflow

  • Javier Soto-NavarroEmail author
  • Samuel Somot
  • Florence Sevault
  • Jonathan Beuvier
  • Francisco Criado-Aldeanueva
  • Jesús García-Lafuente
  • Karine Béranger
Article

Abstract

A set of simulations from different configurations of the NEMOMED8, NEMOMED12 and NEMOMED36 ocean regional circulation models for the Mediterranean Sea has been studied in order to assess the accuracy of their representation of the exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar. The model volume transport and thermohaline properties of the Mediterranean outflow have been compared with observational data collected at Espartel sill, the westernmost sill of the strait, by a permanent station moored since October 2004 in the frame of the INGRES projects. Results show that, in terms of volume transport, NEMOMED8 simulations perform a better representation of the exchange, while NEMOMED12/36 underestimate both the mean inflow and outflow. The reason for this underestimation is a too low velocity of the flow, which could be consequence of an enhanced roughness effect due the flow-bathymetry interaction. An important improvement in the representation of the exchange seasonality is achieved by the simulations including sea surface height variability of the Atlantic area of the domain. The results for the themohaline characteristics of the Mediterranean outflow are better for NEMOMED12 and NEMOMED36, as a consequence of their better representation of the local dynamical processes that leads to a more realistic composition of the Mediterranean waters comprising the flow.

Keywords

Mediterranean Sea Strait of Gibraltar Ocean regional circulation model Mediterranean outflow Mediterranean waters Mediterranean climate 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been carried out in the frame of the P07-RNM-02938 Junta de Andalucía (JA) Spanish-funded project. Partial support from CTM2010-21229/MAR (INGRES 3) is also acknowledged. The main part of the work was developed during a research stay at Météo-France/CNRS, CNRM-GAME group, in Toulouse (France), funded by JA. Coments from two anonymous reviewers were of great help to improve the former manuscript.

References

  1. Arakawa A, Lamb VR (1981) A potential energy and enstrophy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations. Mon Weather Rev 109:18–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Artale V, Calmanti S, Malanotte-Rizzoli P, Pisacane G, Rupolo V, Tsimplis M (2006) Chapter 5 the Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea as connected systems. In: Lionello P, Malanotte-Rizzoli P, Boscolo R (eds), Developments in earth and environmental sciences, Elsevier, 2006, vol. 4, pp 283–323, ISSN 1571-9197, ISBN 9780444521705. doi: 10.1016/S1571-9197(06)80008-X
  3. Barnier B, Siefridt L, Marchesiello P (1995) Thermal forcing for a global ocean circulation model using a three-year climatology of ECMWF analyses. J Mar Syst 6:363–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnier B et al (2006) Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy-permitting resolution. Ocean Dyn 56:543–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Béranger K, Mortier L, Crépon M (2005) Seasonal variability of water transport through the Straits of Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica, derived from a high-resolution model of the Mediterranean circulation. Prog Oceanogr 66:341–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berné S, Carré D, Loubrieu B, Mazé J-P, Morvan L, Normand A (2004) Le golfe du Lion - Carte morpho-bathymtrique, Ifremer/Conseil Régional du Languedoc- Roussillon EditionGoogle Scholar
  7. Bethoux JP, Gentilli B (1999) Functioning of the Mediterranean Sea: past and present changes relaled to freshwater input and climatic changes. J Mar Syst 20:33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beuvier J (2011) Modelling the long-term variability of circulation and water masses in the Mediteranean Sea: impacts of the ocean-atmosphere exchanges: PhD Thesis. Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France. p 290Google Scholar
  9. Beuvier J, Sevault F, Herrmann M, Kontoyiannis H, Ludwig W, Rixen M, Stanev E, Béranger K, Somot S (2010) Modeling the Mediterranean Sea interannual variability during 1961–2000: focus on the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. J Geophys Res 115:C08017. doi: 10.1029/2009JC005950 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beuvier J, Béranger K, Lebeaupin-Brossier C, Somot S, Sevault F, Drillet Y, Bourdallé-Badie R, Ferry N, Lyard F (2012) Spreading of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water after winter 2005: time scales and deep cyclone transport. J Geophys Res-Oceans. doi: 10.1029/2011JC007679 Google Scholar
  11. Blanke B, Delecluse P (1993) Low frequency variability of the tropical Atlantic Ocean simulated by a general circulation model with mixed layer physics. J Phys Oceanogr 23:1363–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bormans M, Garrett C, Thompson KR (1986) Seasonal variability of the surface inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar. Oceanol Acta 9:403–414Google Scholar
  13. Bozec A, Bouruet-Aubertot P, Iudicone D, Crépon M (2008) Impact of penetrative solar radiation on the diagnosis of water mass transformation in the Mediterranean Sea. J Geophys Res 113:C06012. doi: 10.1029/2007JC004606 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bryden HL, Stommel HM (1984) Limiting processes that determine basic features of the circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. Oceanol Acta 7(3):289–296Google Scholar
  15. Bryden HL, Candela J, Kinder TH (1994) Exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar. Prog Oceanogr 33:201–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cazenave A, Bonnefond P, Mercier F, Dominh K, Toumazou V (2002) Sea level variations in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea from satellite altimetry and tide gauges. Glob Planet Change 34:59–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. CLIPPER Project Team (1999) Modélisation à haute résolution de la circulation dans l’océan Atlantique forcée et couplée océan‐atmosphère, Sci Tech Rep CLIPPER‐R3‐99, Ifremer, Brest, FranceGoogle Scholar
  18. Criado-Aldeanueva F, Del Río Vera J, García-Lafuente J (2008) Steric and mass induced Mediterranean sea level trends from 14 years of altimetry data. Glob Planet Change 60:563–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Criado-Aldeanueva F, Soto-Navarro J, García-Lafuente J (2012) Seasonal and interannual variability of surface heat and freshwater fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea: budgets and exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar. Int J Climatol 32:286–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daget N, Weaver AT, Balmaseda MA (2009) Ensemble estimation of background-error variances in a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for the global ocean. QJR Meteorol Soc 135:1071–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Déqué M, Piedelievre J (1995) High resolution climate simulation over Europe. Clim Dyn 11:321–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drillet Y, Bourdallé-Badie R, Siefridt L, Le Provost C (2005) Meddies in the Mercator North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea eddy-resolving model. J Geophys Res 110:C03016. doi: 10.1029/2003JC002170 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dussin R, Treguier AM (2010) Evaluation of the NATL12-BRD81 simulation, LPO internal Report 10-03Google Scholar
  24. Farmer D, Armi L (1986) The internal hydraulics of the Strait of Gibraltar and associated sills and narrows. Oceanol Acta 8:37–46Google Scholar
  25. Ferry N, Parent L, Garric G, Barnier B, Jourdain NC, and the Mercator Ocean team (2010) Mercator Global Eddy Permitting Ocean Reanalysis GLORYS1V1: Description and Results, Mercator Ocean Quarterly Newsletter, #36—January 2010, pp 15–28Google Scholar
  26. García-Lafuente J, Delgado J, Vargas JM, Vargas M, Plaza F, Sarhan T (2002) Low-frequency variability of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar during CANIGO. Deep Sea Res II 49:4051–4067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. García-Lafuente J, Delgado J, Sánchez-Román A, Soto J, Carracedo L, Díaz del Río G (2009) Interannual variability of the Mediterranean outflow observed in Espartel sill, western Strait of Gibraltar. J Geophys Res 114:C10. doi: 10.1029/2009JC005496 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. García-Lafuente J, Sánchez-Román A, Naranjo C, Sánchez-Garrido JC (2011) The very first transformation of the Mediterranean outflow in the Strait of Gibraltar. J Geophys Res 116:C07010. doi: 10.1029/2011JC006967 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goosse H, Selten FM, Haarsma RJ, Opsteegh JD (2001) Decadal variability in high northern latitudes as simulated by an intermediate-complexity climate model. Ann Glaciol 33:525–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guldberg A, Kaas E, Déqué M, Yang S, Vester Thorsen S (2005) Reduction of systematic errors by empirical model correction: impact on seasonal prediction skill. Tellus Ser A 57:575–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Herrmann M, Somot S (2008) Relevance of ERA40 dynamical downscaling for modeling deep convection in the Mediterranean Sea. Geophys Res Lett 35:L04607. doi: 10.1029/2007GL032442 Google Scholar
  32. Herrmann M, Somot S, Sevault F, Estournel C, Déqué M (2008) Modeling the deep convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea using an eddy-permitting and an eddy-resolving model: case study of the 1986–87 winter. J Geophys Res 113:C04011. doi: 10.1029/2006JC003991 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Herrmann M, Sevault F, Beuvier J, Somot S (2010) What induced the exceptional 2005 convection event in the Northwestern Mediterranean basin ? Answers from a modeling study. J Geophys Res, 115, doi: 10.1029/2010JC006162
  34. Herrmann M, Somot S, Calmanti S, Dubois C, Sevault F (2011) Representation of daily wind speed spatial and temporal variability and intense wind events over the Mediterranean Sea using dynamical downscaling : impact of the regional climate model configuration. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 11:1983–2001. doi: 10.5194/nhess-11-1983-2011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kinder TH, Bryden HL (1990) Aspiration of deep waters through straits. In: Pratt LJ (ed) The physical oceanography of sea straits. Kluver, Norwell, pp 295–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lebeaupin Brossier C, Béranger K, Deltel C, Drobinski P (2011) The Mediterranean response to different space-time resolution atmospheric forcings using perpetual mode sensitivity simulations. Ocean Model 36:1–25. doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lebeaupin Brossier C, Béranger K, Drobinski P (2012) Sensitivity of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea coastal and thermohaline circulations simulated by the 1/12°-resolution ocean model NEMO-MED12 to the spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric forcing. Ocean Model 43–44:94–107. doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.12.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Levitus S, Antonov J, Boyer T (2005) Warming of the world ocean, 1955–2003. Geophys Res Lett 32:L02604Google Scholar
  39. López-Jurado JL, González-Pola C, Vélez-Belchí P (2005) Observation of an abrupt disruption of the long-term warming trend at the Balearic Sea, Western Mediterranean Sea, in summer 2005. Geophys Res Lett 32:L24606. doi: 10.1029/2005GL024430 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ludwig W, Dumont E, Meybeck M, Heussner S (2009) River discharges of water and nutrients to the Mediterranean and Black Sea: major drivers for ecosystem changes during past and future decades? Prog Oceanogr 80:199–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lyard F, Lefevre F, Letellier T, Francis O (2006) Modelling the global ocean tides: modern insights from FES2004. Ocean Dyn 56(5–6), doi: 10.1007/s10236-006-0086-x
  42. Madec G (2008) NEMO ocean engine, Note Pôle Model. 27, Inst. Pierre‐Simon Laplace des Sci. de l’Environ., Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  43. Mariotti A (2011) Recent changes in the Mediterranean water cycle: a pathway toward long-term regional hydroclimatic change. J Clim 23:1513–1525. doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI3251.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mariotti A, Struglia MV, Zeng N, Lau K-M (2002) The hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean region and implications for the water budget of the Mediterranean Sea. J Clim 15:1674–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. MEDAR-MEDATLAS Group (2002) MEDAR/MEDATLAS 2002 database, Cruise inventory, observed and analysed data of temperature and bio-chemical parameters [CD-ROM]. Ifremer, BrestGoogle Scholar
  46. Medimap Group (2005) Morpho-bathymetry of the Mediterranean Sea, CIESM/Ifremer Edition, 2 maps at 1/2000000Google Scholar
  47. Millot C, Candela J, Fuda JL, Tber Y (2006) Large warming and salinification of the Mediterranean outflow due to changes in its composition. Deep Sea Res I 53:656–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Naranjo C, García-Lafuente J, Sánchez-Garrido JC, Sánchez-Román A, Delgado-Cabello J (2012) The western alboran gyre helps ventilate the western mediterranean deep water through Gibraltar. Deep Sea Res I 63:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Oddo P, Adani M, Pinardi N, Fratianni C, Tonani M, Pettenuzzo D (2009) A nested Atlantic-Mediterranean Sea general circulation model for operational forecasting. Ocean Sci Discuss 6:1093–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Oguz T, Sur HI (1989) A two-layer model of water exchange through the dardanelles strait. Oceanol Acta 12:23–31Google Scholar
  51. Parrilla G, Kinder TH, Preller RH (1986) Deep and intermediate Mediterranean water in the western Alboran Sea. Deep Sea Res I 33:55–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Reynaud T, Legrand P, Mercier H, Barnier B (1998) A new analysis of hydrographic data in the Atlantic and its application to an inverse modeling study. Int WOCE Newsl 32:29–31Google Scholar
  53. Rixen M, Bechers JM, Levitus S, Antonov J, Boyer T, Maillard C, Fichaut M, Balopoulos M, Iona S, Dooly S, García MJ, Manca B, Giorgetti A, Manzella G, Mikhailov N, Pinardi N, Zavatereli M (2005) The western Mediterranean deep water: a proxy for climate change. Geophys Res Lett 32:LI2608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Roullet G, Madec G (2000) Salt conservation, free surface, and varying levels: a new formulation for ocean general circulation models. J Geophys Res 105:23927–23942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sánchez-Garrido JC, Sannino G, Liberti L, García-Lafuente J, Pratt L (2011) Numerical modeling of three-dimensional stratified tidal flow over Camarinal Sill, Strait of Gibraltar. J Geophys Res 116:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sanchez-Román A, Sannino G, García-Lafuente J, Carillo A, Criado-Aldeanueva F (2009) Transport estimates at the western section of the Strait of Gibraltar: a combined experimental and numerical modeling study. J Geophys Res 114:C06002. doi: 10.1029/2008JC005023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sannino G, Herrmann M, Carillo A, Rupolo V, Ruggiero V, Artale V, Heimbach P (2009) An eddy-permitting model of the Mediterranean Sea with a two-way grid refinement at the Strait of Gibraltar. Ocean Model 30:56–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schroeder K, Ribotti A, Borghini M, Sorgente R, Perilli A, Gasparini GP (2009) An extensive western Mediterranean deep water renewal between 2004 and 2006. Geophys Res Lett 35(18):L18605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sevault F, Somot S, Beuvier J (2009) A regional version of the NEMO ocean engine on the Mediterranean Sea: NEMOMED8 user’s guide, Note Cent. 107, Groupe de Meteorol. de Grande Echelle et Clim., Cent. Natl. de Rech. Meteorol., Toulouse, FranceGoogle Scholar
  60. Simmons A, Gibson J (2000) The ERA40 project plan, ERA40 Proj. Rep. 1, Eur. Cent. for Medium‐Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UKGoogle Scholar
  61. Smith WHF, Sandwell DT (1997) Global sea floor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth sounding. Science 277:1956–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Somot S, Sevault F, Déqué M (2006) Transient climate change scenario simulation of the Mediterranean Sea for the twenty-first century using a high-resolution ocean circulation model. Clim Dyn 27:851–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Soto-Navarro J, Criado-Aldeanueva F, García-Lafuente J, Sánchez-Román A (2010) Estimation of the Atlantic inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar from climatological and in situ data. J Geophys Res 115:C10023. doi: 10.1029/2010JC006302 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stanev E, Peneva EL (2002) Regional sea level response to global climatic change: Black Sea examples. Glob Planet Change 32:33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stanev EV, Le Traon P-Y, Peneva EL (2000) Sea level variations and their dependency on meteolorogical and hydrological forcing: analysis of altimeter and surface data for the Black Sea. J Geophys Res 105:17203–17216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Stommel H, Bryden H, Mangelsdorf P (1973) Does some of the Mediterranean outflow come from great depth? Pure appl Geophys 105:879–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Thorpe RB, Bigg GR (2000) Modelling the sensitivity of the Mediterranean outflow to anthropogenically forced climate change. Clim Dyn 16(2000):355–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tonani M, Pinardi N, Dobricic S, Pujol I, Fratianni C (2008) A high-resolution free-surface model of the Mediterranean Sea. Ocean Sci 4:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tsimplis M, Marcos M, Colin J, Somot S, Pascual A, Shaw AGP (2009) Sea level variability in the Mediterranean Sea during the 1990s on the basis of one 2D and one 3D model. J Mar Syst 78:109–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vlassenko V, Sánchez-Garrido JC, Stashchuk N, García-Lafuente J, Losada M (2009) Three-dimensional evolution of large amplitude internal waves in the Strait of Gibraltar. J Phys Oceanogr 39:2230–2246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Vörösmarty C, Fekete B, Tucker B (1996) Global river discharge database, RivDis, http://www.rivdis.sr.unh.edu/, U. N. Educ. Sci. and Cult. Organ. Paris

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javier Soto-Navarro
    • 1
    Email author
  • Samuel Somot
    • 2
  • Florence Sevault
    • 2
  • Jonathan Beuvier
    • 2
    • 3
  • Francisco Criado-Aldeanueva
    • 1
  • Jesús García-Lafuente
    • 1
  • Karine Béranger
    • 4
  1. 1.Physical Oceanography GroupUniversity of Málaga (GOFIMA)MálagaSpain
  2. 2.Météo-France/CNRSCNRM-GAMEToulouseFrance
  3. 3.Mercator OcéanRamonville St. AgneFrance
  4. 4.UMEENSTA-ParisTechPalaiseau CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations