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Climate Dynamics

, Volume 44, Issue 5–6, pp 1257–1275 | Cite as

On the stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the last deglaciation

  • Wei Liu
  • Zhengyu Liu
  • Jun Cheng
  • Haibo Hu
Article

Abstract

Using a generalized stability indicator L, we explore the stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) during the last deglaciation based on a paleoclimate simulation. From the last glacial maximum, as forced by various external climate forcings, notably the meltwater forcing, the AMOC experiences a collapse and a subsequent rapid recovery in the early stage of deglaciation. This change of the AMOC induces an anomalous freshwater divergence and later convergence across the Atlantic and therefore leads to a positive L, suggesting a negative basin-scale salinity advection feedback and, in turn, a mono-stable deglacial AMOC. Further analyses show that most anomalous freshwater is induced by the AMOC via the southern boundary of the Atlantic at 34°S where the freshwater transport (M ovS ) is about equally controlled by the upper branch of the AMOC and the upper ocean salinity along 34°S. From 19 to 17 ka, as a result of multiple climate feedbacks associated with the AMOC change, the upper ocean at 34°S is largely salinified, which helps to induce a switch in M ovS , from import to export. Our study has important implications to the deglacial simulations by climate models. A decomposition of L shows that the AMOC stability is mostly determined by two terms, the salinity stratification at 34°S and the change of stratification with the AMOC. Both terms appear positive in model. However, the former is likely to be distorted towards positive, as associated with a common bias existing over the South Atlantic in climate models. Therefore, the AMOC is potentially biased towards mono-stability in most paleoclimate simulations.

Keywords

AMOC Stability indicator Freshwater transport Feedback The last deglaciation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Wei Liu and Zhengyu Liu are supported by NSF, DOE and NSFC 41,130,105. Jun Cheng is supported by NSFC 41206024. Haibo Hu is supported by the National Key Program for Developing Basic Science (Grant Nos. 2010CB428504, 2012CB956002).

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cooperative Institute for Climate and SatellitesNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.NOAA National Climatic Data CenterAshevilleUSA
  3. 3.CASPO, Scripps Institution of OceanographyUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  4. 4.Lab. Climate, Ocean and Atmosphere StudiesPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  5. 5.Center for Climatic ResearchUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  6. 6.Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, School of Marine SciencesNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  7. 7.School of Atmospheric SciencesNanjing UniversityNanjingChina

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