Climate Dynamics

, Volume 43, Issue 7–8, pp 1951–1963 | Cite as

Impact of land–sea breezes at different scales on the diurnal rainfall in Taiwan

Article

Abstract

The formation mechanism of diurnal rainfall in Taiwan is commonly recognized as a result of local forcings involving solar thermal heating and island-scale land–sea breeze (LSB) interacting with orography. This study found that the diurnal variation of the large-scale circulation over the East Asia-Western North Pacific (EAWNP) modulates considerably the diurnal rainfall in Taiwan. It is shown that the interaction between the two LSB systems—the island-scale LSB and the large-scale LSB over EAWNP—facilitates the formation of the early morning rainfall in western Taiwan, afternoon rainfall in central Taiwan, and nighttime rainfall in eastern Taiwan. Moreover, the post-1998 strengthening of a shallow, low-level southerly wind belt along the coast of Southeast China appears to intensify the diurnal rainfall activity in Taiwan. These findings reveal the role of the large-scale LSB and its long-term variation in the modulation of local diurnal rainfall.

Keywords

Diurnal rainfall Land–sea breeze Circulation change Low-level jet 

References

  1. Alpers W, Chen JP, Lin II, Lien CC (2007) Atmospheric fronts along the east coast of Taiwan studied by ERS synthetic aperture radar images. J Atmos Sci 64:922–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alpers W, Chen JP, Pi CJ, Lin II (2010) On the origin of atmospheric frontal lines off the east coast of Taiwan observed on space borne synthetic aperture radar images. Mon Weather Rev 138:475–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aves S, Johnson RH (2008) The diurnal cycle of convection over the northern South China Sea. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 86:919–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen GTJ (1983) Observational aspects of the Mei-Yu phenomenon in subtropical China. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 61:306–312Google Scholar
  5. Chen YL (1993) Some synoptic-scale aspects 682 of the surface fronts over southern China during TAMEX. Mon Weather Rev 121:50–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen CS, Chen YL (2003) The rainfall characteristics of Taiwan. Mon Weather Rev 131:1323–1341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen TC, Yen MC, Hsieh JC, Arritt RW (1999) Diurnal and seasonal variations of the rainfall measured by the automatic rainfall and meteorological telemetry system in Taiwan. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 80:2299–2312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen CS, Chen YL, Liu CL, Lin PL, Chen WC (2007) Statistics of heavy rainfall occurrences in Taiwan. Weather Forecast 22:981–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen GTJ, Wang CC, Chang SW (2008) A diagnostic case study of Mei-Yu frontogenesis and development of wavelike frontal disturbances in the subtropical environment. Mon Weather Rev 136:41–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen G, Sha W, Sawada M, Iwasaki T (2013) Influence of summer monsoon diurnal cycle on moisture transport and precipitation over eastern China. J Geophys Res Atmos 118:3163–3177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dai A, Deser C (1999) Diurnal and semidiurnal variations in global surface wind and divergence fields. J Geophys Res 104:31109–31125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dai A, Lin X, Hsu KL (2007) The frequency, intensity, and diurnal cycle of precipitation in surface and satellite observations over low- and mid-latitudes. Clim Dyn 29:727–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Geng B, Yamada H (2007) Diurnal variations of the Meiyu/Baiu rain belt. Sci Online Lett Atmos 3:61–64Google Scholar
  14. Hong Y, Hsu KL, Sorooshian S, Gao X (2005) Improved representation of diurnal variability of rainfall retrieved from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager adjusted Precipitation estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) system. J Geophys Res 110:D06102. doi:10.1029/2004JD005301 Google Scholar
  15. Huang WR, Chan JCL (2011) Maintenance mechanisms for the early-morning maximum summer rainfall over Southeast China. Q J R Meteorol Soc 137:959–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang WR, Chan JCL (2012) Seasonal variation of diurnal and semidiurnal variation of rainfall over Southeast China. Clim Dyn 39:1913–1927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang WR, Chan JCL, Wang SY (2010) A planetary-scale land–sea breeze circulation in East Asia and the western North Pacific. Q J R Meteorol Soc 136:1543–1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang WR, Chan JCL, Au-Yeung AYM (2013) Regional climate simulations of summer diurnal rainfall variations over East Asia and Southeast China. Clim Dyn 40:1625–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnson RH, Bresch JF (1991) Diagnosed characteristics of precipitation systems over Taiwan during the May–June 1987 TAMEX. Mon Weather Rev 119:2540–2557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kerns BWJ, Chen YL, Chang MY (2010) The diurnal cycle of winds, rain, and clouds over Taiwan during the Mei-Yu, summer, and autumn rainfall regimes. Mon Weather Rev 138:497–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kishtawal CM, Krishnamurti TN (2001) Diurnal variation of summer rainfall over Taiwan and its detection Using TRMM observations. J Appl Meteor 40:331–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li J, Chen YL, Lee WC (1997) Analysis of a heavy rainfall event during TAMEX. Mon Weather Rev 125:1060–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li J, Yu R, Zhou T (2008) Seasonal variation of the diurnal cycle of rainfall in southern Contiguous China. J Clim 21:6036–6043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mao JY, Wu GX (2012) Diurnal variations of summer precipitation over the Asian monsoon region as revealed by TRMM satellite data. Sci China Earth Sci 55:554–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ramage CS (1952) Diurnal variation of summer rainfall over east China, Korea and Japan. J Atmos Sci 9:83–86Google Scholar
  26. Rienecker MM et al (2011) MERRA: NASA’s modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications. J Clim 24:3624–3648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ruppert JHJ, Johnson RH, Rowe AK (2013) Diurnal circulations and rainfall in Taiwan during SoWMEX/TiMREX (2008). Mon Weather Rev. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-12-00301.1
  28. Simpson JS, Kummerow C, Tao WK, Adler RF (1996) On the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM). Meteorol Atmos Phys 60:19–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sun J, Zhang F (2012) Impacts of mountain-plains solenoid on diurnal variations of rainfalls along the Mei-Yu front over the East China Plains. Mon Weather Rev 140:379–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang SY, Chen TC (2008) Measuring East Asian summer monsoon rainfall contributions by different weather systems over Taiwan. J Appl Meteorol Clim 47:2068–2080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang CC, Huang WM (2009) High-resolution simulation of a nocturnal narrow convective line off the southeastern coast of Taiwan in the Mei-Yu season. Geophys Res Lett 36:L06815. doi:10.1029/2008GL037147 Google Scholar
  32. Wang SY, Chia HH, Gillies RR, Jiang X (2013a) Quasi-biweekly mode and its modulation on the diurnal rainfall in Taiwan forecasted by the CFS. Wea Forecast. doi:10.1175/WAF-D-12-00120.1
  33. Wang SY, L’Heureux M, Yoon JH (2013b) Are Greenhouse gases changing ENSO precursors in the Western North Pacific? J Clim 26:6309–6322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yeh HC, Chen YL (1998) Characteristics of rainfall distributions over Taiwan during the Taiwan Area Mesoscale Experiment (TAMEX). J Appl Meteorol 37:1457–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yu CK, Lin CY (2008) Statistical location and timing of the convective lines off the mountainous coast of southeastern Taiwan from long-term radar observations. Mon Weather Rev 136:5077–5094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yu R, Li J, Chen H (2009) Diurnal variation of surface wind over central eastern China. Clim Dyn 33:1089–1097. doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0478-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhou T, Yu R, Chen H, Dai A, Pan Y (2008) Summer precipitation frequency, intensity, and diurnal cycle over China: a comparison of satellite data with rain gauge observations. J Clim 21:3997–4010CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesNational Taiwan Normal UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Utah Climate CenterUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  3. 3.Department of Plants, Soils, and ClimateUtah State UniversityLoganUSA

Personalised recommendations